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Grant Details

Grant Number: 7R01CA190130-05 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Flocke, Susan
Organization: Oregon Health & Science University
Project Title: Measurement of Nicotine Dependence Among Adolescent & Young Adult Cigarillo Users
Fiscal Year: 2018


DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Between 2000 and 2012 cigar, cigarillo, and little cigar (CCLC) use has increased 124%. Adolescents and young adults are the most prevalent users. For some states and urban school districts, including Cleveland, Ohio, the use of CCLC among adolescents now exceeds the use of cigarettes. Despite the increase in CCLC use among youth, attention to potential nicotine dependence (ND) among users of these products has been largely ignored. Recent evidence shows that users of CCLC do inhale when smoking and that, when compared to cigarettes, CCLC products contain as much if not more of the highly addictive chemical nicotine. Therefore, assessing ND among CCLC users is an important step to inform the extent to which these products are causing harm among users and thus, should be subjected to the same regulations as cigarettes. Patterns of use and the speed and method with which nicotine is physically received differ by tobacco product; because of this Fagerstrom and colleagues suggest that product-specific measures are needed to more precisely assess the level of ND among users. To our knowledge no measure of ND has been adapted for CCLC users nor has there been a new measure created for this purpose. This represents a significant gap in research we aim to address by establishing a measure of ND symptoms that is relevant, valid and reliable for adolescents and young adult CCLC users. Using an array of rigorous methods including qualitative in-depth interviews, Rasch modeling for measure development, and survey and biomarker data, the proposed project will contribute to the reliable and valid measurement of ND among CCLC users. The final CCLC ND measure will be administered to large samples of adolescents using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to assess the prevalence of ND symptoms among CCLC users. The findings from this study will guide decisions regarding the appropriate implementation and scope of CCLC product regulation that is parallel to cigarettes with regard to warning labels, harmful constituent reporting, and regulation of other aspects that have been shown to influence youth access to and consumption of tobacco projects including packaging and product placement for sale.


"I got a little addiction": Adolescent and young adult cigarillo users' self-perceptions of addiction.
Authors: Koopman Gonzalez S.J. , Trapl E.S. , Albert E.L. , Ishler K.J. , Cavallo D.N. , Lim R. , Flocke S.A. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2022-02-01; 231, p. 109235.
EPub date: 2021-12-24.
PMID: 35042154
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Cigarillo and multiple tobacco product use and nicotine dependence in adolescents and young adults.
Authors: Ishler K.J. , Flocke S.A. , Albert E.L. , Trapl E. , Gunzler D. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2020 Dec; 111, p. 106537.
EPub date: 2020-07-03.
PMID: 32795846
Related Citations

Effectiveness of Social Media Approaches to Recruiting Young Adult Cigarillo Smokers: Cross-Sectional Study.
Authors: Cavallo D. , Lim R. , Ishler K. , Pagano M. , Perovsek R. , Albert E. , Koopman Gonzalez S. , Trapl E. , Flocke S. .
Source: Journal of medical Internet research, 2020-07-22; 22(7), p. e12619.
EPub date: 2020-07-22.
PMID: 32459629
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A comparison of methods to measure daily cigarillo consumption among adolescents and young adults.
Authors: Antognoli E. , Ishler K.J. , Trapl E. , Flocke S.A. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2020 Mar; 29(2), p. 153-158.
EPub date: 2019-01-29.
PMID: 30696781
Related Citations

"Phantom smokers": Young cigarillo users who do not identify as smokers.
Authors: Lim R. , Ishler K. , Trapl E. , Flocke S. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2019-11-01; 204, p. 107551.
EPub date: 2019-09-11.
PMID: 31541873
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Cigarettes, Little Cigars, and Cigarillos: Initiation, Motivation, and Decision-Making.
Authors: Antognoli E. , Koopman Gonzalez S. , Trapl E. , Cavallo D. , Lavanty B. , Lim R. , Flocke S. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2018-08-14; 20(suppl_1), p. S5-S11.
PMID: 30125020
Related Citations

The Social Context of Adolescent Co-Use of Cigarillos and Marijuana Blunts.
Authors: Antognoli E. , Koopman Gonzalez S. , Trapl E. , Cavallo D. , Lim R. , Lavanty B. , Flocke S. .
Source: Substance use & misuse, 2018-03-21; 53(4), p. 654-661.
EPub date: 2017-09-21.
PMID: 28933976
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Understanding Nicotine Dependence and Addiction Among Young Adults Who Smoke Cigarillos: A Qualitative Study.
Authors: Antognoli E. , Cavallo D. , Trapl E. , Step M. , Koopman Gonzalez S. , Perez R. , Flocke S. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2018-02-07; 20(3), p. 377-382.
PMID: 28184877
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