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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA215155-04 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Berg, Carla
Organization: George Washington University
Project Title: Regulatory Impact on Vape Shops and Young Adults' Use of Ends
Fiscal Year: 2020


PROJECT SUMMARY/ABSTRACT Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have emerged in the US market, with use and awareness rapidly increasing in recent years, particularly in young adults. While ENDS may facilitate harm reduction in smokers, ENDS represent significant health risks, including addiction in the nicotine-naïve (e.g., young adults). From a socioecologic perspective, the literature regarding tobacco retail indicates that place characteristics such as neighborhood demography and policy context influence retailer location and marketing, and these factors impact individual tobacco use. However, this literature is in its infancy in regard to ENDS and particularly to vape shops, which are stores exclusively devoted to ENDS sales. Vape shops have proliferated in the US and are unique in their product offerings, marketing, and overall retail environment (e.g., tasting bars). Vape shops, as well as the 2nd and 3rd generation ENDS they sell, have particular appeal to young adults. A particularly important and timely macro-level factor that may impact ENDS use and distribution channels is the impending FDA Deeming Regulation on ENDS and other tobacco products. The Deeming Regulation involves a range of policies implemented in the next 3 years (e.g., mandatory age verification and prohibiting free samples beginning in Aug 2016, mandatory health warning labels effective Aug 2018, manufacturers required to submit a new tobacco product application by Aug 2018, etc.). These regulations are likely to impact vape shop survival as well as their marketing and the overall vape shop experience, given young adults are the biggest segment of vape shop clientele (who will require ID), the social experience of tasting bars (which will no longer be allowed), and the history of ENDS being promoted as safe and for cessation or harm reduction (with products and ads requiring health warnings). A well-integrated program of research is needed to examine the multilevel impact of regulation on ENDS retailers, as well as on ENDS marketing, specifically among vape shops, given that they are a unique retail settings that have a particular impact on young adult ENDS use. Leveraging a Socioecological Framework, we will draw data from 6 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) representing the CDC-defined regions and the gradient of tobacco control in order to address 3 inter-related aims: 1) examine density and survival of vape shops over time and across contexts in relation to FDA regulation, local policies, and other sociocontextual factors (e.g., neighborhood context, density/proximity of convenience stores); 2) examine vape shop marketing and POS practices (e.g., age verification, free sampling, health warnings) over time and across contexts in relation to FDA regulation, local policies, and other sociocontextual factors (e.g., neighborhood context, density/proximity of convenience stores); and 3) examine young adult ENDS use over time and across contexts in relation to spatial access to vape shops and convenience stores, ENDS advertising exposure, local policies, and sociocontextual factors. This research will document the impact of regulation on this industry and provide an evidence base for legislation regarding zoning and vape shop marketing/POS practices to protect high-risk populations. We will disseminate findings with an explicit focus on informing public health policy and practice regarding ENDS, as well as future research.


Vape shop owners'/managers' attitudes about CBD, THC, and marijuana legal markets.
Authors: Berg C.J. , Getachew B. , Pulvers K. , Sussman S. , Wagener T.L. , Meyers C. , Park A. , Dorvil S. , Patterson A. , Weber A. , et al. .
Source: Preventive medicine reports, 2020 Dec; 20, p. 101208.
EPub date: 2020-09-12.
PMID: 32995147
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A Hope-Based Intervention to Address Disrupted Goal Pursuits and Quality of Life Among Young Adult Cancer Survivors.
Authors: Berg C.J. , Vanderpool R.C. , Getachew B. , Payne J.B. , Johnson M.F. , Sandridge Y. , Bierhoff J. , Le L. , Johnson R. , Weber A. , et al. .
Source: Journal of cancer education : the official journal of the American Association for Cancer Education, 2020 Dec; 35(6), p. 1158-1169.
PMID: 31297743
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A systematic review of practice-, provider-, and patient-level determinants impacting Asian-Americans' human papillomavirus vaccine intention and uptake.
Authors: Vu M. , Berg C.J. , Escoffery C. , Jang H.M. , Nguyen T.T. , Travis L. , Bednarczyk R.A. .
Source: Vaccine, 2020-09-22; 38(41), p. 6388-6401.
EPub date: 2020-08-20.
PMID: 32829979
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Vape shop identification, density and place characteristics in six metropolitan areas across the US.
Authors: Berg C.J. , Schleicher N.C. , Johnson T.O. , Barker D.C. , Getachew B. , Weber A. , Park A.J. , Patterson A. , Dorvil S. , Fairman R.T. , et al. .
Source: Preventive medicine reports, 2020 Sep; 19, p. 101137.
EPub date: 2020-05-31.
PMID: 32566458
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Smokers' and Nonsmokers' Receptivity to Smoke-Free Policies and Pro- and Anti-Policy Messaging in Armenia and Georgia.
Authors: Topuridze M. , Berg C.J. , Dekanosidze A. , Torosyan A. , Grigoryan L. , Bazarchyan A. , Sargsyan Z. , Hayrumyan V. , Maglakelidze N. , Sturua L. , et al. .
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 2020-07-30; 17(15), .
EPub date: 2020-07-30.
PMID: 32751714
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Vape shop owners/managers' opinions about FDA regulation of e-cigarettes.
Authors: Berg C.J. , Barker D.C. , Sussman S. , Getachew B. , Pulvers K. , Wagener T.L. , Hayes R.B. , Henriksen L. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2020-07-29; , .
EPub date: 2020-07-29.
PMID: 32722808
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Exploring the Point-of-Sale Among Vape Shops Across the US: Audits Integrating a Mystery Shopper Approach.
Authors: Berg C.J. , Barker D.C. , Meyers C. , Weber A. , Park A.J. , Patterson A. , Dorvil S. , Fairman R.T. , Huang J. , Sussman S. , et al. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2020-02-28; , .
EPub date: 2020-02-28.
PMID: 32149340
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Prescription stimulant use among young adult college students: Who uses, why, and what are the consequences?
Authors: Fairman R.T. , Vu M. , Haardörfer R. , Windle M. , Berg C.J. .
Source: Journal of American college health : J of ACH, 2020-01-16; , p. 1-8.
EPub date: 2020-01-16.
PMID: 31944915
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Informing iQOS Regulations in the United States: A Synthesis of What We Know.
Authors: Berg C.J. , Bar-Zeev Y. , Levine H. .
Source: SAGE open, 2020 Jan-Mar; 10(1), .
EPub date: 2020-01-09.
PMID: 32719733
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Strengthening Policy-Relevant Tobacco Research Capacity in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Challenges, Opportunities, and Lessons Learned.
Authors: Berg C.J. , Thrasher J.F. , Barnoya J. , Cohen J.E. , Maziak W. , Lando H. , Drope J. , Mejia R. , Foley K. , Nakkash R. , et al. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2019-07-17; 21(8), p. 1140-1143.
PMID: 29873768
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Ecological momentary assessment of various tobacco product use among young adults.
Authors: Berg C.J. , Haardörfer R. , Payne J.B. , Getachew B. , Vu M. , Guttentag A. , Kirchner T.R. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2019 05; 92, p. 38-46.
EPub date: 2018-12-11.
PMID: 30579116
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IQOS point-of-sale marketing strategies in Israel: a pilot study.
Authors: Bar-Zeev Y. , Levine H. , Rubinstein G. , Khateb I. , Berg C.J. .
Source: Israel journal of health policy research, 2019-01-14; 8(1), p. 11.
EPub date: 2019-01-14.
PMID: 30642383
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Vape shop location and marketing in the context of the Food and Drug Administration regulation.
Authors: Berg C.J. .
Source: Public health, 2018 Dec; 165, p. 142-145.
EPub date: 2018-11-08.
PMID: 30415177
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The impact and relevance of tobacco control research in low-and middle-income countries globally and to the US.
Authors: Berg C.J. , Fong G.T. , Thrasher J.F. , Cohen J.E. , Maziak W. , Lando H. , Drope J. , Mejia R. , Barnoya J. , Nakkash R. , et al. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2018 12; 87, p. 162-168.
EPub date: 2018-07-17.
PMID: 30041132
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Point-of-sale marketing and context of marijuana retailers: Assessing reliability and generalizability of the marijuana retail surveillance tool.
Authors: Berg C.J. , Henriksen L. , Cavazos-Rehg P. , Schauer G.L. , Freisthler B. .
Source: Preventive medicine reports, 2018 Sep; 11, p. 37-41.
EPub date: 2018-05-17.
PMID: 29984136
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The emerging marijuana retail environment: Key lessons learned from tobacco and alcohol retail research.
Authors: Berg C.J. , Henriksen L. , Cavazos-Rehg P.A. , Haardoerfer R. , Freisthler B. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2018 06; 81, p. 26-31.
EPub date: 2018-02-01.
PMID: 29421347
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Taking Stock of Tobacco Control Program and Policy Science and Impact in the United States.
Authors: Farrelly M.C. , Chaloupka F.J. , Berg C.J. , Emery S.L. , Henriksen L. , Ling P. , Leischow S.J. , Luke D.A. , Kegler M.C. , Zhu S.H. , et al. .
Source: Journal of addictive behaviors and therapy, 2017; 1(2), .
EPub date: 2017-09-15.
PMID: 30198028
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