Skip to main content

COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation.

What people with cancer should know:

Guidance for cancer researchers:

Get the latest public health information from CDC:

Get the latest research information from NIH:

Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA198915-05 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Adams, Marc
Organization: Arizona State University-Tempe Campus
Project Title: WALKIT: Neighborhood Walkability and Moderation of Adaptive Walking Interventions
Fiscal Year: 2019


 DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Exercise is medicine. Known benefits of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) include improvements to cardiorespiratory fitness, obesity, bone health, cardiovascular disease risk factors, some cancers, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Nevertheless, <8% of US adults as measured by accelerometry meet MVPA guidelines. The majority of existing interventions to increase MVPA have been relatively static (with educational materials or components such as goals to engage in MVPA not changing over time) and at the individual level. Technological and theoretical advances make adaptive interventions (AIs) for MVPA feasible for individuals. Unlike static interventions, AIs have time-varying components that respond uniquely to an individual's performance and changing needs. AIs have potential to reduce treatment mismatch, increase adherence, enhance potency, and personalize behavioral medicine. Micro-incentives (MIs) that are "smaller, sooner incentives" for goal attainment are possible with technology and hypothesized to result in greater MVPA than "larger, later incentives". Combined MIs and AIs have the potential to enhance adoption of MVPA. Additionally, multilevel ecological models posit that physical activity is sensitive to the design of built environments. One core hypothesis derived from ecological models is that low walkable neighborhoods constrain physical activity adoption and maintenance, even in the context of individual-level interventions to increase such behavior. High walkable neighborhoods are hypothesized to provide a supportive environment for PA adoption and maintenance, enhancing the effect of individual-level interventions. Few studies have tested a priori the premise that individual-level interventions result in greater adoption and maintenance of MVPA when conducted in neighborhood environments supportive (vs. unsupportive) of physical activity. Based on our pilot work, we will develop novel adaptive (AI) and micro-incentive (MI) interventions and test them against static (SI) and delayed-incentive interventions (DI) in a 4-arm, randomized factorial trial to increase MVPA among 480 inactive men and women (18-60 years). Using GIS-measured neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status, we will recruit participants from four neighborhood types: "high walkable/high SES," "high walkable/low SES," "low walkable/high SES," and "low walkable/low SES." The factorial design and sampling approach will allow us to test, within a multilevel framework, synergistic or antagonistic interaction effects of interventions and neighborhood factors on MVPA adoption and maintenance. Primary aims of this proposal are to (1) test main and interaction effects for AIs and MIs on MVPA minutes/day by 12 months, (2) investigate whether AIs and MIs foster persistence of MVPA at 18 and 24 months, and (3) determine whether AIs and MIs (compared to SIs and DIs) conducted in high walkable (vs. low walkable) neighborhoods result in greater adoption by 12 months and maintenance of MVPA at 18 and 24 months. Results will inform future hypotheses of ecological models and studies for MVPA adoption and maintenance to improve public health.


Variable Magnitude and Frequency Financial Reinforcement is Effective at Increasing Adults' Free-Living Physical Activity.
Authors: Berardi V. , Hovell M. , Hurley J.C. , Phillips C.B. , Bellettiere J. , Todd M. , Adams M.A. .
Source: Perspectives on behavior science, 2020 Sep; 43(3), p. 515-538.
EPub date: 2020-03-05.
PMID: 33029578
Related Citations

Delay Discount Rate Moderates a Physical Activity Intervention Testing Immediate Rewards.
Authors: Phillips C.B. , Hurley J.C. , Angadi S.S. , Todd M. , Berardi V. , Hovell M.F. , Adams M.A. .
Source: Behavioral medicine (Washington, D.C.), 2020 Apr-Jun; 46(2), p. 142-152.
EPub date: 2019-04-11.
PMID: 30973315
Related Citations

Crime and Physical Activity: Development of a Conceptual Framework and Measures.
Authors: Patch C.M. , Roman C.G. , Conway T.L. , Taylor R.B. , Gavand K.A. , Saelens B.E. , Adams M.A. , Cain K.L. , Engelberg J.K. , Mayes L. , et al. .
Source: Journal of physical activity & health, 2019-10-01; 16(12), p. 818-829.
EPub date: 2019-08-29.
PMID: 31465288
Related Citations

Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of WalkIT Arizona: A factorial randomized trial testing adaptive goals and financial reinforcement to increase walking across higher and lower walkable neighborhoods.
Authors: Adams M.A. , Hurley J.C. , Phillips C.B. , Todd M. , Angadi S.S. , Berardi V. , Hovell M.F. , Hooker S. .
Source: Contemporary clinical trials, 2019 06; 81, p. 87-101.
EPub date: 2019-05-04.
PMID: 31063868
Related Citations

Reliability between online raters with varying familiarities of a region: Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS).
Authors: Zhu W. , Sun Y. , Kurka J. , Geremia C. , Engelberg J.K. , Cain K. , Conway T. , Sallis J.F. , Hooker S.P. , Adams M.A. .
Source: Landscape and urban planning, 2017 11; 167, p. 240-248.
EPub date: 2017-07-14.
PMID: 29170571
Related Citations

Online versus in-person comparison of Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) assessments: reliability of alternate methods.
Authors: Phillips C.B. , Engelberg J.K. , Geremia C.M. , Zhu W. , Kurka J.M. , Cain K.L. , Sallis J.F. , Conway T.L. , Adams M.A. .
Source: International journal of health geographics, 2017-08-04; 16(1), p. 27.
EPub date: 2017-08-04.
PMID: 28778205
Related Citations

Erratum to: Adaptive goal setting and financial incentives: a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial to increase adults' physical activity.
Authors: Adams M.A. , Hurley J.C. , Todd M. , Bhuiyan N. , Jarrett C.L. , Tucker W.J. , Hollingshead K.E. , Angadi S.S. .
Source: BMC public health, 2017-04-06; 17(1), p. 303.
EPub date: 2017-04-06.
PMID: 28385148
Related Citations

Adaptive goal setting and financial incentives: a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial to increase adults' physical activity.
Authors: Adams M.A. , Hurley J.C. , Todd M. , Bhuiyan N. , Jarrett C.L. , Tucker W.J. , Hollingshead K.E. , Angadi S.S. .
Source: BMC public health, 2017-03-29; 17(1), p. 286.
EPub date: 2017-03-29.
PMID: 28356097
Related Citations

The Walking Interventions Through Texting (WalkIT) Trial: Rationale, Design, and Protocol for a Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial of Adaptive Interventions for Overweight and Obese, Inactive Adults.
Authors: Hurley J.C. , Hollingshead K.E. , Todd M. , Jarrett C.L. , Tucker W.J. , Angadi S.S. , Adams M.A. .
Source: JMIR research protocols, 2015-09-11; 4(3), p. e108.
EPub date: 2015-09-11.
PMID: 26362511
Related Citations

Back to Top