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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA192849-04 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Bricker, Jonathan
Organization: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Project Title: Randomized Trial of an Innovative Smartphone Intervention for Smoking Cessation
Fiscal Year: 2018


 DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): There is tremendous need for smoking cessation intervention technologies with strong potential population-level impact at the lowest possible cost. That potential can be found in the newest technological innovation in quit smoking interventions: smartphone-based smoking cessation software applications ("apps"). There are over 400 smoking cessation apps, which were downloaded in the United States 3.2 million times during the two-year period 2012 to 2013. No trials of any app's effectiveness for general adult cessation have been published and no NIH-funded cessation intervention trials are in progress-despite the fact this is a high priority NIH funding topic. The enormous usage of smoking cessation apps contrasted with their unknown effectiveness creates a serious scientific gap that could stifle their population-level impact. Research on US Clinical Practice Guidelines (USCPG) apps begins to address that research gap. But only following the USCPG has had limitations in other modalities of delivery. An approach, called Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT), addresses these limitations with both innovative intervention content and highly promising results from six published trials. ACT's innovation is its dual focus on increasing willingness to experience physical cravings, emotions, and thoughts that cue smoking while making values-guided committed behavior changes. We recently developed the first ACT app for smoking cessation, called "SmartQuit," and tested it in a pilot randomized controlled trial (N 196), comparing it with an app that follows USCPG (National Cancer Institute's "QuitGuide"). Results showed that SmartQuit had: (1) higher participant engagement and satisfaction than QuitGuide, (3) higher levels of acceptance of cravings than QuitGuide, and (3) descriptively higher quit rates (albeit non-significant) than QuitGuide at the two-month follow-up. Building on these promising results, we propose a fully-powered three-arm randomized controlled trial (n = 811 per arm) that compares SmartQuit to QuitGuide and each app to the NCI's Clearing the Air booklet, which follows the USCPG, to definitively determine whether (1) an USCPG app is more efficacious than a USCPG self-help booklet; (2) an ACT app is more efficacious than a USCPG booklet; (3) an ACT app is more efficacious than a USCPG app. As millions of people are choosing smartphone apps to help them quit smoking, this innovative study shows exciting promise for improving the success rates of quit smoking apps and thereby lowering healthcare costs and reducing premature tobacco-related deaths.


Efficacy of Smartphone Applications for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Authors: Bricker J.B. , Watson N.L. , Mull K.E. , Sullivan B.M. , Heffner J.L. .
Source: JAMA internal medicine, 2020-11-01; 180(11), p. 1472-1480.
PMID: 32955554
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A Smartphone App Designed to Help Cancer Patients Stop Smoking: Results From a Pilot Randomized Trial on Feasibility, Acceptability, and Effectiveness.
Authors: Bricker J.B. , Watson N.L. , Heffner J.L. , Sullivan B. , Mull K. , Kwon D. , Westmaas J.L. , Ostroff J. .
Source: JMIR formative research, 2020-01-17; 4(1), p. e16652.
EPub date: 2020-01-17.
PMID: 31951215
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Design and Development of Smoking Cessation Apps Based on Smokers' and Providers' Perspectives in China: Survey Study.
Authors: Xu J. , Bricker J. , Fu X. , Su C. , Wang P. , Qi T. , Cheng F. .
Source: JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 2019-10-04; 7(10), p. e12200.
EPub date: 2019-10-04.
PMID: 31588914
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Addiction Mindsets and Psychological Processes of Quitting Smoking.
Authors: Sridharan V. , Shoda Y. , Heffner J.L. , Bricker J. .
Source: Substance use & misuse, 2019; 54(7), p. 1086-1095.
EPub date: 2019-03-20.
PMID: 30892118
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Smokers with bipolar disorder, other affective disorders, and no mental health conditions: Comparison of baseline characteristics and success at quitting in a large 12-month behavioral intervention randomized trial.
Authors: Heffner J.L. , Mull K.E. , Watson N.L. , McClure J.B. , Bricker J.B. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2018-12-01; 193, p. 35-41.
EPub date: 2018-10-10.
PMID: 30340143
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Participant Recruitment and Retention in Remote eHealth Intervention Trials: Methods and Lessons Learned From a Large Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Web-Based Smoking Interventions.
Authors: Watson N.L. , Mull K.E. , Heffner J.L. , McClure J.B. , Bricker J.B. .
Source: Journal of medical Internet research, 2018-08-24; 20(8), p. e10351.
EPub date: 2018-08-24.
PMID: 30143479
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Improving quit rates of web-delivered interventions for smoking cessation: full-scale randomized trial of versus
Authors: Bricker J.B. , Mull K.E. , McClure J.B. , Watson N.L. , Heffner J.L. .
Source: Addiction (Abingdon, England), 2018 05; 113(5), p. 914-923.
EPub date: 2018-01-26.
PMID: 29235186
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Trajectories of 12-Month Usage Patterns for Two Smoking Cessation Websites: Exploring How Users Engage Over Time.
Authors: Bricker J.B. , Sridharan V. , Zhu Y. , Mull K.E. , Heffner J.L. , Watson N.L. , McClure J.B. , Di C. .
Source: Journal of medical Internet research, 2018-04-20; 20(4), p. e10143.
EPub date: 2018-04-20.
PMID: 29678799
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Single-arm trial of the second version of an acceptance & commitment therapy smartphone application for smoking cessation.
Authors: Bricker J.B. , Copeland W. , Mull K.E. , Zeng E.Y. , Watson N.L. , Akioka K.J. , Heffner J.L. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2017-01-01; 170, p. 37-42.
EPub date: 2016-11-04.
PMID: 27870987
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Get with the program: Adherence to a smartphone app for smoking cessation.
Authors: Zeng E.Y. , Heffner J.L. , Copeland W.K. , Mull K.E. , Bricker J.B. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2016 12; 63, p. 120-4.
EPub date: 2016-07-08.
PMID: 27454354
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