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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA179246-05 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Stepanov, Irina
Organization: University Of Minnesota
Project Title: Constituent Yields and Biomarkers of Exposure for Tobacco Product Regulation
Fiscal Year: 2017


Abstract

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A mandated reduction in cigarette smoke of selected carcinogens and toxicants has been recommended by the World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) and is now possible in the U.S. under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Although a mandated reduction of individual toxicants and carcinogens may not necessarily lead to reduction in health risks, some potent carcinogens in cigarette smoke can be substantially reduced by modifying cigarette manufacturing approaches. Therefore, the overall goal would be to progressively reduce levels of these constituents in mainstream smoke as measured by standardized machine determined methods. However, the issue of how to test and regulate the contents of cigarette smoke represents a critical challenge. The currently used standard machine testing methods do not account for the complexities of smoker-cigarette interaction and are widely recognized to be inadequate for the prediction of human exposures. TobReg study group recommended that levels of toxicants be established per mg of nicotine. However, it is not known how the constituent per mg nicotine emissions in cigarette smoke are related to individual constituent exposures in smokers, and which factors may affect this relationship. Moreover, it is not clear which of the traditionally used standard smoking machine regimens may deliver constituent per mg nicotine levels in the U.S. cigarettes that are most closely related to the smokers' exposure. The goal of our proposal is to address these critical gaps. Building on our expertise in the analysis of tobacco products and biomarkers of exposure, we will focus on the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines N2-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) to conduct research as described in the following specific aims: (1) To examine NNN and NNK per mg nicotine emissions in various U.S. cigarette brands under different smoking regimens. (2) To examine the extent to which changes in NNN and NNK per mg nicotine yields in smoke succeed in predicting changes in smokers' exposure to these carcinogens. (3) To determine which individual factors (for example, duration and intensity of smoking, nicotine metabolism, demographics) may affect the relationship between the machine- measured TSNA per mg nicotine and exposures in smokers. These factors may need to be considered when examining constituent/mg nicotine smoke yields for regulatory purposes. This research is critical for expanding the science base that informs the FDA as it develops, evaluates, and implements tobacco product regulations.



Publications

Risk perceptions and continued smoking as a function of cigarette filter ventilation level among US youth and young adults who smoke.
Authors: Carroll D.M. , Tessier K.M. , Cummings K.M. , O'Connor R.J. , Reisinger S. , Shields P.G. , Stepanov I.S. , Luo X. , Hatsukami D.K. , Rees V.W. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2023 Jul; 32(4), p. 473-479.
EPub date: 2021-12-02.
PMID: 34857645
Related Citations

Association of Urinary Biomarkers of Smoking-Related Toxicants with Lung Cancer Incidence in Smokers: The Multiethnic Cohort Study.
Authors: Cigan S.S. , Murphy S.E. , Stram D.O. , Hecht S.S. , Marchand L.L. , Stepanov I. , Park S.L. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 2023-03-06; 32(3), p. 306-314.
PMID: 36350738
Related Citations

Is perception reality? Associations among "light" cigarettes and number of cigarettes smoked per day.
Authors: Freitas-Lemos R. , Tegge A.N. , Athamneh L.N. , Yeh Y.H. , Craft W.H. , Stein J.S. , Smith T.T. , Stepanov I. , Rees V.W. , Cummings K.M. , et al. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2023-03-01; 244, p. 109709.
EPub date: 2023-01-13.
PMID: 36642000
Related Citations

Switching to cigarette brand variants with different filter ventilation levels: a descriptive analysis.
Authors: Carroll D.M. , Tessier K. , Luo X. , Stepanov I.S. , Shields P.G. , O'Connor R. , Rees V.W. , Cummings M. , Bickel W. , Hatsukami D. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2023-01-23; , .
EPub date: 2023-01-23.
PMID: 36690447
Related Citations

Ethnic Differences of Urinary Cadmium in Cigarette Smokers from the Multiethnic Cohort Study.
Authors: Cigan S.S. , Murphy S.E. , Alexander B.H. , Stram D.O. , Hatsukami D.K. , Le Marchand L. , Park S.L. , Stepanov I. .
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 2021-03-06; 18(5), .
EPub date: 2021-03-06.
PMID: 33800899
Related Citations

Impact of Cigarette Filter Ventilation on U.S. Smokers' Perceptions and Biomarkers of Exposure and Potential Harm.
Authors: Carroll D.M. , Stepanov I. , O'Connor R. , Luo X. , Cummings K.M. , Rees V.W. , Bickel W.K. , Berman M.L. , Ashley D.L. , Bansal-Travers M. , et al. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 2021 Jan; 30(1), p. 38-44.
EPub date: 2020-10-22.
PMID: 33093163
Related Citations

Applying Tobacco, Environmental, and Dietary-Related Biomarkers to Understand Cancer Etiology and Evaluate Prevention Strategies.
Authors: Peterson L.A. , Balbo S. , Fujioka N. , Hatsukami D.K. , Hecht S.S. , Murphy S.E. , Stepanov I. , Tretyakova N.Y. , Turesky R.J. , Villalta P.W. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 2020 Oct; 29(10), p. 1904-1919.
EPub date: 2020-02-12.
PMID: 32051197
Related Citations

Comprehensive Chemical Characterization of Natural American Spirit Cigarettes.
Authors: Jain V. , Alcheva A. , Huang D. , Caruso R. , Jain A. , Lay M. , O'Connor R. , Stepanov I. .
Source: Tobacco regulatory science, 2019 Jul; 5(4), p. 381-399.
PMID: 33907702
Related Citations

Recent Studies on DNA Adducts Resulting from Human Exposure to Tobacco Smoke.
Authors: Ma B. , Stepanov I. , Hecht S.S. .
Source: Toxics, 2019-03-19; 7(1), .
EPub date: 2019-03-19.
PMID: 30893918
Related Citations

Optimized Liquid Chromatography Nanoelectrospray-High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Analysis of 4-Hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-Releasing DNA Adducts in Human Oral Cells.
Authors: Ma B. , Ruszczak C. , Jain V. , Khariwala S.S. , Lindgren B. , Hatsukami D.K. , Stepanov I. .
Source: Chemical research in toxicology, 2016-11-21; 29(11), p. 1849-1856.
EPub date: 2016-10-12.
PMID: 27618873
Related Citations

Case-oriented pathways analysis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma using data from a sleeping beauty transposon mutagenesis screen.
Authors: Ho Y.Y. , Starr T.K. , LaRue R.S. , Largaespada D.A. .
Source: BMC medical genomics, 2016-04-01; 9, p. 16.
EPub date: 2016-04-01.
PMID: 27038937
Related Citations

Bringing attention to e-cigarette pH as an important element for research and regulation.
Authors: Stepanov I. , Fujioka N. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2015 Jul; 24(4), p. 413-4.
EPub date: 2014-05-14.
PMID: 24827979
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