Skip to main content
An official website of the United States government
Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R03CA195124-02 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Harrell, Paul
Organization: Eastern Virginia Medical School
Project Title: Measure Development for Prediction of E-Cigarette Initiation
Fiscal Year: 2016


 DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Marketing, availability, and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems ("e-cigarettes") are growing at an exponential rate, particularly among young adults. E-cigarettes may be a form of harm reduction for cigarette smokers, potentially helping to reduce the largest preventable cause of death in the United States. It is critical that we understand as much as possible about why cigarette smokers do or do not choose to use e-cigarettes. Additionally, e-cigarettes are a new entryway into nicotine use for non-smokers. E-cigarettes often contain addictive and toxic chemicals and could potentially renormalize cigarette smoking. It is imperative we understand what is driving usage or lack of usage among young adults including both smokers and non- smokers. Drug outcomes expectancies, i.e., beliefs about the results of drug use, are a key tool in predicting substance use initiation. Drug expectancies can be understood as information structures in long-term memory that organize input to the central nervous system and guide management of behavior, acting as a "final common pathway" implicated in connections between prior conditions and drug use decisions. Before substance use, drug expectancies develop from observation via family members, peers, and the media. After use initiation and during continued use, expectancies tend to become stronger, more associated with other elements in long-term memory, more specific, and more positive. Drug expectancies have been found to be robust predictors of substance use initiation. We propose using a mixed-methods approach to develop an e-cigarette expectancy questionnaire. Test development will involve two phases. In the first formative phase, focus groups with young adults (N=80, stratified to include equal numbers of e-cigarette users, i.e., "vapers," "non-vapers," smokers, and non-smokers) and consultation with an expert panel will be used to develop an initial item bank. In the second phase, this initial item bank will be presented to a large sample of young adults (N=500). Item Response Theory will be utilized to determine the best functioning items and to create a shorter survey. This survey will be assessed for its convergent validity. The end result will be a well-informed, psychometrically valid assessment of e-cigarette expectancies. This outcome expectancy measure for e-cigarettes will facilitate future research and help guide development and evaluation of public health interventions, such as marketing regulations, labeling requirements, and development of counter-messaging.


Measuring vaping-related expectancies in young adults: Psychometric evaluation of the Electronic Nicotine Vaping Outcomes (ENVO) scale.
Authors: Harrell P.T. , Brandon T.H. , Stark S.E. , Simmons V.N. , Barnett T.E. , Quinn G.P. , Chun S. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2023-05-01; 246, p. 109861.
EPub date: 2023-03-29.
PMID: 37028105
Related Citations

Emotion dysregulation, transdiagnostic vulnerabilities, and e-cigarette expectancies in a young adult sample.
Authors: Brockenberry L.O. , Braitman A.L. , Harrell P.T. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2022 May; 128, p. 107253.
EPub date: 2022-01-19.
PMID: 35085950
Related Citations

Dripping Technology Use Among Young Adult E-Cigarette Users.
Authors: Massey Z.B. , Brockenberry L.O. , Murray T.E. , Harrell P.T. .
Source: Tobacco use insights, 2021; 14, p. 1179173X211035448.
EPub date: 2021-07-31.
PMID: 34377042
Related Citations

Vaping, smartphones, and social media use among young adults: Snapchat is the platform of choice for young adult vapers.
Authors: Massey Z.B. , Brockenberry L.O. , Harrell P.T. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2021 Jan; 112, p. 106576.
EPub date: 2020-07-26.
PMID: 32768796
Related Citations

How Does Smoking and Nicotine Dependence Change After Onset of Vaping? A Retrospective Analysis of Dual Users.
Authors: Martínez Ú. , Martínez-Loredo V. , Simmons V.N. , Meltzer L.R. , Drobes D.J. , Brandon K.O. , Palmer A.M. , Eissenberg T. , Bullen C.R. , Harrell P.T. , et al. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2020-04-21; 22(5), p. 764-770.
PMID: 30883640
Related Citations

Longitudinal Analysis of Associations Between Reasons for Electronic Cigarette Use and Change in Smoking Status Among Adults in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study.
Authors: Soule E.K. , Plunk A.D. , Harrell P.T. , Hayes R.B. , Edwards K.C. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2020-04-21; 22(5), p. 663-671.
PMID: 30698815
Related Citations

Vaping Expectancies: A Qualitative Study among Young Adult Nonusers, Smokers, Vapers, and Dual Users.
Authors: Harrell P.T. , Brandon T.H. , England K.J. , Barnett T.E. , Brockenberry L.O. , Simmons V.N. , Quinn G.P. .
Source: Substance abuse : research and treatment, 2019; 13, p. 1178221819866210.
EPub date: 2019-08-19.
PMID: 31456638
Related Citations

Automated dripping devices for vapers: RDTAs, bottomfeeders, squonk mods and dripboxes.
Authors: Harrell P.T. , Eissenberg T. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2018 Jul; 27(4), p. 480-482.
EPub date: 2017-07-22.
PMID: 28735274
Related Citations

Basic Science and Public Policy: Informed Regulation for Nicotine and Tobacco Products.
Authors: Fowler C.D. , Gipson C.D. , Kleykamp B.A. , Rupprecht L.E. , Harrell P.T. , Rees V.W. , Gould T.J. , Oliver J. , Bagdas D. , Damaj M.I. , et al. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2018-06-07; 20(7), p. 789-799.
PMID: 29065200
Related Citations

Patterns of youth tobacco and polytobacco usage: The shift to alternative tobacco products.
Authors: Harrell P.T. , Naqvi S.M.H. , Plunk A.D. , Ji M. , Martins S.S. .
Source: The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 2017 Nov; 43(6), p. 694-702.
EPub date: 2016-09-26.
PMID: 27668320
Related Citations

The impact of adolescent exposure to medical marijuana laws on high school completion, college enrollment and college degree completion.
Authors: Plunk A.D. , Agrawal A. , Harrell P.T. , Tate W.F. , Will K.E. , Mellor J.M. , Grucza R.A. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2016-11-01; 168, p. 320-327.
EPub date: 2016-10-11.
PMID: 27742490
Related Citations

Commentary on Betts et al. (2016): Polysubstance use and opioid substitution therapy among people who inject drugs.
Authors: Harrell P.T. , Fu H. .
Source: Addiction (Abingdon, England), 2016 Jul; 111(7), p. 1224-5.
PMID: 27273387
Related Citations

Back to Top