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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R21CA198216-02 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Cho, Eunyoung
Organization: Brown University
Project Title: Psoralens and Melanoma
Fiscal Year: 2016
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Abstract

¿ DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Incidence of cutaneous melanoma has been increasing. We recently found that intake of citrus fruits, especially grapefruit, was associated with increased risk of developing melanoma and believe that psoralens in citrus fruits may be responsible for the association. An oral 8-methoxy psoralen (8-MOP; methoxsalen) in combination with ultraviolet-A radiation (Psoralen and UVA Light [PUVA] therapy) is used to treat skin disorders and found to be associated with increased incidence of melanoma. Psoralens are a group of naturally occurring linear furocoumarins (furanocoumarins) in fruits and vegetables and are potentially phototoxic and photocarcinogenic; they intercalate DNA and photochemically induce mutations. The levels of furocoumarins present in our diets, while normally well below levels that would cause evident acute phototoxicity, do cause pharmacologically relevant drug interactions, known as the `grapefruit effect'. Furthermore, there are no efficient routes for the metabolic detoxification of psoralens in humans. Consequently, low levels of psoralens, which are not completely excreted, may occur in our skin awaiting suitable photon interactions to create mutational lesions potentially resulting in melanoma or other skin cancers. Citrus fruit consumption has increased substantially in the US. However, there is a lack of epidemiological data on dietary psoralen intake in relation to melanoma risk because food composition database for dietary psoralens are not available. Data are lacking on blood and urine psoralen levels in humans. Therefore, in this proposal, we plan to capitalize on existing dietary data collected in large cohort studies (where the positive association between citrus fruit intake and melanoma risk was found) and propose to construct a food composition database on dietary psoralens through direct assessment of several common psoralens in psoralen-rich foods including citrus fruit items and to evaluate dietary psoralen intake in relation to melanoma risk with at least 1,000 melanoma cases. We also propose to conduct a pilot study to investigate whether we can detect these psoralens in archived blood and urine samples of large cohort studies and to assess laboratory variability, stability due to delays in processing, and within-person variability of the blood and urinary psoralens. We are uniquely positioned to most efficiently address the hypotheses. The results of the investigation will pave the way for future studies that will capitalize on these findings and cn lead to studies of plasma or urine psoralen levels to unveil the roles of naturally occurring psoralens in carcinogenesis. Because dietary guidelines for cancer prevention encourage consumption of fruits and vegetables, clarification of the effect of naturally occurring psoralens on carcinogenesis has public health implications as we have experienced through the findings of `grapefruit effect'.

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Publications

A Prospective Study of Toenail Trace Element Levels and Risk of Skin Cancer.
Authors: Matthews N.H. , Koh M. , Li W.Q. , Li T. , Willett W.C. , Stampfer M.J. , Christiani D.C. , Morris J.S. , Qureshi A.A. , Cho E. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 2019 Sep; 28(9), p. 1534-1543.
EPub date: 2019-06-19.
PMID: 31217167
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Challenges in assessing the sunscreen-melanoma association.
Authors: Rueegg C.S. , Stenehjem J.S. , Egger M. , Ghiasvand R. , Cho E. , Lund E. , Weiderpass E. , Green A.C. , Veierød M.B. .
Source: International journal of cancer, 2019-06-01; 144(11), p. 2651-2668.
EPub date: 2019-01-07.
PMID: 30447006
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Association Between Health Maintenance Practices and Skin Cancer Risk as a Possible Source of Detection Bias.
Authors: Drucker A.M. , Li W.Q. , Savitz D.A. , Weinstock M.A. , Han J. , Li T. , Qureshi A.A. , Cho E. .
Source: JAMA dermatology, 2019-03-01; 155(3), p. 353-357.
PMID: 30586131
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Epidemiology of Diet and Melanoma-Letter.
Authors: Dhana A. , Yen H. , Qureshi A.A. , Cho E. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 2019 Feb; 28(2), p. 420.
PMID: 30718237
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Exposure to Trace Elements and Risk of Skin Cancer: A Systematic Review of Epidemiologic Studies.
Authors: Matthews N.H. , Fitch K. , Li W.Q. , Morris J.S. , Christiani D.C. , Qureshi A.A. , Cho E. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 2019 01; 28(1), p. 3-21.
EPub date: 2018-10-08.
PMID: 30297516
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Intake of folate and other nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism and risk of cutaneous melanoma among US women and men.
Authors: Dhana A. , Yen H. , Li T. , Holmes M.D. , Qureshi A.A. , Cho E. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, 2018 08; 55, p. 176-183.
EPub date: 2018-07-07.
PMID: 29990794
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Red meat and processed meat intake and risk for cutaneous melanoma in white women and men: Two prospective cohort studies.
Authors: Yen H. , Li W.Q. , Dhana A. , Li T. , Qureshi A. , Cho E. .
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2018 Aug; 79(2), p. 252-257.e6.
EPub date: 2018-04-24.
PMID: 29698709
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Fat Intake and Risk of Skin Cancer in U.S. Adults.
Authors: Park M.K. , Li W.Q. , Qureshi A.A. , Cho E. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 2018 07; 27(7), p. 776-782.
EPub date: 2018-04-10.
PMID: 29636341
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The Role of Micronutrients in Alopecia Areata: A Review.
Authors: Thompson J.M. , Mirza M.A. , Park M.K. , Qureshi A.A. , Cho E. .
Source: American journal of clinical dermatology, 2017 Oct; 18(5), p. 663-679.
PMID: 28508256
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Risk of second primary cancer associated with pre-diagnostic smoking, alcohol, and obesity in women with keratinocyte carcinoma.
Authors: Park S.M. , Li T. , Wu S. , Li W.Q. , Qureshi A.A. , Stampfer M. , Cho E. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, 2017 04; 47, p. 106-113.
EPub date: 2017-02-24.
PMID: 28242577
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Niacin intake and risk of skin cancer in US women and men.
Authors: Park S.M. , Li T. , Wu S. , Li W.Q. , Weinstock M. , Qureshi A.A. , Cho E. .
Source: International journal of cancer, 2017-05-01; 140(9), p. 2023-2031.
EPub date: 2017-02-14.
PMID: 28152570
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Lifetime ultraviolet radiation exposure and lentigo maligna melanoma.
Authors: Linos E. , Li W.Q. , Han J. , Li T. , Cho E. , Qureshi A.A. .
Source: The British journal of dermatology, 2017 06; 176(6), p. 1666-1668.
EPub date: 2017-04-21.
PMID: 27925150
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Alcohol Intake and Risk of Incident Melanoma: A Pooled Analysis of Three Prospective Studies in the United States.
Authors: Rivera A. , Nan H. , Li T. , Qureshi A. , Cho E. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 2016 12; 25(12), p. 1550-1558.
PMID: 27909090
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Authors: Chen S.T. , Li T. , Han J. , Qureshi A.A. , Cho E. .
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2016 Oct; 75(4), p. 831-834.
PMID: 27646740
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Reply to S. Lehrer et al and J.C. Dowdy and R.M. Sayre.
Authors: Wu S. , Cho E. , Qureshi A.A. .
Source: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 2016-02-20; 34(6), p. 637-8.
EPub date: 2016-01-04.
PMID: 26729435
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