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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5U01CA154280-05 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Zhu, Shu-Hong
Organization: University Of California, San Diego
Project Title: Nonsmokers and Tobacco Control Norms: Population Surveys and Intervention Studies
Fiscal Year: 2015
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Abstract

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This proposal focuses on testing a new idea to increase smoking cessation on the population level. We propose to conduct population surveys and intervention studies to demonstrate that nonsmokers hold the key to increasing population cessation. This large project is grouped by three overlapping phases: Phase 1: Surveys: We will conduct surveys of nationally representative samples to test the hypothesis that the attitudinal gaps between nonsmokers and smokers on tobacco control measures are significantly larger among those living in states with a high tobacco control index than among those in low index states, and that the attitudinal gap (grouped by state) predicts the smoking cessation rate. The survey of 3,500 smokers and 3,500 nonsmokers will be conducted with Knowledge Networks Inc. Phase 2. A Randomized Trial: We will recruit 2,960 smoking households (with an adult non-smoker) from the general community (half from California and half from Oklahoma) and randomly assign them into a 2 x 2 factorial design: one factor is whether the intervention targets smokers or nonsmokers and the other is the intensity of the intervention. They will be followed up for 12 months. Two primary hypotheses to test are: Messages targeting nonsmokers produce significantly higher quit rates among smokers in the household than messages targeting smokers and that higher intervention intensity produce a higher quit rate. Phase 3. A Comparative Media Study and Dissemination: We will create a new cessation media spot and compare it with the existing media campaign in California and Oklahoma. The health departments of these two states (who are co-investigators) have committed to coordinate their ongoing media campaign with this study. In a selected in market in each state, we will use an ABAB design (A= targeting smokers and B=targeting nonsmokers) to test the effects of the new media spots. Using the number of calls to each state quitline as a proxy measure, we will test the that hypothesis that media spots targeting nonsmokers produce significantly higher rates of quitline calls than media spots targeting smokers. We in cooperate dissemination into the project through collaboration with multiple state health departments

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Publications

A Comparison of E-Cigarette Use Patterns and Smoking Cessation Behavior among Vapers by Primary Place of Purchase.
Authors: Hsu G. , Gamst A.C. , Zhuang Y.L. , Wolfson T. , Zhu S.H. .
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 2019-02-28; 16(5), .
EPub date: 2019-02-28.
PMID: 30823400
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Evolution of Electronic Cigarette Brands From 2013-2014 to 2016-2017: Analysis of Brand Websites.
Authors: Hsu G. , Sun J.Y. , Zhu S.H. .
Source: Journal of medical Internet research, 2018-03-12; 20(3), p. e80.
EPub date: 2018-03-12.
PMID: 29530840
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Internet-based Advertising Claims and Consumer Reasons for Using Electronic Cigarettes by Device Type in the US.
Authors: Pulvers K. , Sun J.Y. , Zhuang Y.L. , Holguin G. , Zhu S.H. .
Source: Tobacco regulatory science, 2017 Oct; 3(4), p. 516-524.
PMID: 29104902
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E-cigarette use and associated changes in population smoking cessation: evidence from US current population surveys.
Authors: Zhu S.H. , Zhuang Y.L. , Wong S. , Cummins S.E. , Tedeschi G.J. .
Source: BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 2017-07-26; 358, p. j3262.
EPub date: 2017-07-26.
PMID: 28747333
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Smoking prevalence in Medicaid has been declining at a negligible rate.
Authors: Zhu S.H. , Anderson C.M. , Zhuang Y.L. , Gamst A.C. , Kohatsu N.D. .
Source: PloS one, 2017; 12(5), p. e0178279.
EPub date: 2017-05-25.
PMID: 28542637
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Long-term e-cigarette use and smoking cessation: a longitudinal study with US population.
Authors: Zhuang Y.L. , Cummins S.E. , Sun J.Y. , Zhu S.H. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2016 10; 25(Suppl 1), p. i90-i95.
PMID: 27697953
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Use of electronic cigarettes in smoke-free environments.
Authors: Shi Y. , Cummins S.E. , Zhu S.H. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2017 03; 26(e1), p. e19-e22.
EPub date: 2016-09-08.
PMID: 27609779
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Knowledge and beliefs about electronic cigarettes among quitline cessation staff.
Authors: Cummins S. , Leischow S. , Bailey L. , Bush T. , Wassum K. , Copeland L. , Zhu S.H. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2016 09; 60, p. 78-83.
EPub date: 2016-04-06.
PMID: 27100472
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E-Cigarette Design Preference and Smoking Cessation: A U.S. Population Study.
Authors: Chen C. , Zhuang Y.L. , Zhu S.H. .
Source: American journal of preventive medicine, 2016 09; 51(3), p. 356-63.
EPub date: 2016-04-20.
PMID: 27005984
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What Online Communities Can Tell Us About Electronic Cigarettes and Hookah Use: A Study Using Text Mining and Visualization Techniques.
Authors: Chen A.T. , Zhu S.H. , Conway M. .
Source: Journal of medical Internet research, 2015-09-29; 17(9), p. e220.
EPub date: 2015-09-29.
PMID: 26420469
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Quitting smoking before and after varenicline: a population study based on two representative samples of US smokers.
Authors: Zhu S.H. , Cummins S.E. , Gamst A.C. , Wong S. , Ikeda T. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2016 07; 25(4), p. 464-9.
EPub date: 2015-08-17.
PMID: 26283713
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Do smokers support smoke-free laws to help themselves quit smoking? Findings from a longitudinal study.
Authors: Nagelhout G.E. , Zhuang Y.L. , Gamst A. , Zhu S.H. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2015 May; 24(3), p. 233-7.
EPub date: 2014-01-10.
PMID: 24415730
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Population support before and after the implementation of smoke-free laws in the United States: trends from 1992-2007.
Authors: Nagelhout G.E. , Wolfson T. , Zhuang Y.L. , Gamst A. , Willemsen M.C. , Zhu S.H. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2015 Mar; 17(3), p. 350-5.
EPub date: 2014-08-20.
PMID: 25143293
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Comparison of smoking cessation between education groups: findings from 2 US National Surveys over 2 decades.
Authors: Zhuang Y.L. , Gamst A.C. , Cummins S.E. , Wolfson T. , Zhu S.H. .
Source: American journal of public health, 2015 Feb; 105(2), p. 373-9.
PMID: 25521868
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Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulation.
Authors: Zhu S.H. , Sun J.Y. , Bonnevie E. , Cummins S.E. , Gamst A. , Yin L. , Lee M. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2014 Jul; 23 Suppl 3, p. iii3-9.
PMID: 24935895
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Use of e-cigarettes by individuals with mental health conditions.
Authors: Cummins S.E. , Zhu S.H. , Tedeschi G.J. , Gamst A.C. , Myers M.G. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2014 Jul; 23 Suppl 3, p. iii48-53.
EPub date: 2014-05-12.
PMID: 24824516
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Computer-delivered social norm message increases pain tolerance.
Authors: Pulvers K. , Schroeder J. , Limas E.F. , Zhu S.H. .
Source: Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 2014 Jun; 47(3), p. 316-24.
PMID: 24146086
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Using twitter to examine smoking behavior and perceptions of emerging tobacco products.
Authors: MyslĂ­n M. , Zhu S.H. , Chapman W. , Conway M. .
Source: Journal of medical Internet research, 2013-08-29; 15(8), p. e174.
EPub date: 2013-08-29.
PMID: 23989137
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The use and perception of electronic cigarettes and snus among the U.S. population.
Authors: Zhu S.H. , Gamst A. , Lee M. , Cummins S. , Yin L. , Zoref L. .
Source: PloS one, 2013; 8(10), p. e79332.
EPub date: 2013-10-24.
PMID: 24250756
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Interventions to increase smoking cessation at the population level: how much progress has been made in the last two decades?
Authors: Zhu S.H. , Lee M. , Zhuang Y.L. , Gamst A. , Wolfson T. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2012 Mar; 21(2), p. 110-8.
PMID: 22345233
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