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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01DA036507-10 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Haddock, Christopher
Organization: National Development & Res Institutes
Project Title: Barriers to Effective Tobacco Control Policy Implementation in the Us Military
Fiscal Year: 2015
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Abstract

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The objective of this study is to develop knowledge that will advance tobacco control policy implementation within the U.S. military. The health of its personnel is critical to the mission of the U.S. military, and smoking negatively affects troop readiness in the short term and health care costs in the longer term. Both of these issues are of heightened concern due to the country's current involvement in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, smoking prevalence among military personnel remains unacceptably high, despite declining from 51.0% in 1980 to 30.4% in 2008 (the most recent DOD population survey of tobacco use). Since 2002 no significant reduction in smoking prevalence has been achieved in the military, and smokeless tobacco use has increased slightly. Policy changes, such as increased cigarette taxes and clean indoor air laws, have been shown to be more effective than education or individual intervention at reducing smoking rates. Such policy changes have helped reduce smoking prevalence in the U.S. civilian population from over 50% in 1965 to 20.6% currently. However, although numerous military tobacco control policies have been issued since the 1980s, their effective implementation has been repeatedly thwarted by structural, cultural, and political barriers. This descriptive, multi-method study will develop knowledge that will advance tobacco control efforts within the U.S. military by explicating these barriers to policy implementation, describing the social meanings of tobacco use and cessation within the military context, and identifying best practices in military tobacco control policy implementation. The specific aims of the project are to: Aim 1: Explicate the barriers to effective tobacco control in the military by (a) Assessing the state of leadership on tobacco control among commanders through a content analysis of base commander messages in military installation newspapers; (b): Conduct an economic analysis to determine the cost differential of cigarettes purchased on U.S. military installations and those purchased in their local market; and (c) Retrieve and analyze internal tobacco industry documents in order to describe the tobacco industry's activities pertaining to the four active service branches of the United States (US) military, the Veterans Administration, veterans groups and other military-affiliated organizations. Aim 2: Describe the meanings of tobacco use in the military by conducting a set of secondary analyses of qualitative interview and focus group data obtained from military personnel, augmented by data from internal tobacco industry documents, military periodicals, and installation policy language to explore: (a) The construction of tobacco use as a "right" within the military; (b) The experience of starting to smoke in the military; and (c) The experience of quitting smoking in the military. Aim 3: Analyze effective tobacco control in the military by identifying key elements associated with successful implementation of a tobacco control policy at the installation level through in-depth case studies of effective policy intervention.

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Publications

Consequences of Inconsistency in Air Force Tobacco Control Policy.
Authors: Lando-King E.A. , Malone R.E. , Haddock C.K. , Poston W.S.C. , Lando H.A. , Jahnke S.A. , Hawk N. , Smith E.A. .
Source: Tobacco regulatory science, 2017 Apr; 3(2), p. 232-238.
EPub date: 2017-04-01.
PMID: 29226195
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Cigarette prices and community price comparisons in US military retail stores.
Authors: Poston W.S.C. , Haddock C.K. , Jahnke S.A. , Smith E. , Malone R.E. , Jitnarin N. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2016 09; 26(5), p. 600-603.
EPub date: 2016-08-23.
PMID: 27553357
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Installation Tobacco Control Programs in the U.S. Military.
Authors: Smith E.A. , Poston W.S. , Haddock C.K. , Malone R.E. .
Source: Military medicine, 2016 06; 181(6), p. 596-601.
PMID: 27244072
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Factors influencing cigarette smoking among soldiers and costs of soldier smoking in the work place at Kakiri Barracks, Uganda.
Authors: Basaza R. , Otieno E. , Musinguzi A. , Mugyenyi P. , Haddock C.K. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2017 05; 26(3), p. 330-333.
EPub date: 2016-05-10.
PMID: 27165996
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Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.
Authors: Smith E.A. , Jahnke S.A. , Poston W.S. , Malone R.E. , Haddock C.K. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2016 10; 18(10), p. 2041-4.
EPub date: 2016-05-04.
PMID: 27146639
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Perspectives of US military commanders on tobacco use and tobacco control policy.
Authors: Poston W.S.C. , Haddock C.K. , Jahnke S.A. , Jitnarin N. , Malone R.E. , Smith E.A. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2017 05; 26(3), p. 254-259.
EPub date: 2016-04-15.
PMID: 27084960
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Banning cigarette smoking on US Navy submarines: a case study.
Authors: Lando H.A. , Michaud M.E. , Poston W.S. , Jahnke S.A. , Williams L. , Haddock C.K. .
Source: Tobacco control, 2015 Oct; 24(e3), p. e188-92.
EPub date: 2014-08-27.
PMID: 25163466
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A content analysis of military commander messages about tobacco and other health issues in military installation newspapers: what do military commanders say about tobacco?
Authors: Poston W.S. , Haddock C.K. , Jahnke S.A. , Hyder M.L. , Jitnarin N. .
Source: Military medicine, 2015 Jun; 180(6), p. 708-17.
PMID: 26032388
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Tobacco use policy in military housing.
Authors: Smith E.A. , Rojo R. , Malone R.E. .
Source: Military medicine, 2015 Jun; 180(6), p. 612-4.
PMID: 26032376
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"Throwing a rock at their armored tank": civilian authority and military tobacco control.
Authors: Grundy Q. , Smith E.A. , Malone R.E. .
Source: BMC public health, 2014-12-17; 14, p. 1292.
EPub date: 2014-12-17.
PMID: 25518726
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Mediatory myths in the U.S. military: tobacco use as "stress relief".
Authors: Smith E.A. , Malone R.E. .
Source: American journal of health promotion : AJHP, 2014 Nov-Dec; 29(2), p. 115-22.
EPub date: 2013-12-20.
PMID: 24359178
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Is it time for a tobacco-free military?
Authors: Smith E.A. , Jahnke S.A. , Poston W.S. , Williams L.N. , Haddock C.K. , Schroeder S.A. , Malone R.E. .
Source: The New England journal of medicine, 2014-08-14; 371(7), p. 589-91.
EPub date: 2014-07-02.
PMID: 24988299
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A longitudinal analysis of cigarette prices in military retail outlets.
Authors: Haddock C.K. , Hyder M.L. , Poston W.S. , Jahnke S.A. , Williams L.N. , Lando H. .
Source: American journal of public health, 2014 Apr; 104(4), p. e82-7.
EPub date: 2014-02-13.
PMID: 24524503
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Offen et al. respond.
Authors: Offen N. , Smith E. , Malone R.E. .
Source: American journal of public health, 2013 Jul; 103(7), p. e3-4.
EPub date: 2013-05-16.
PMID: 23678918
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Cigarette prices in military retail: a review and proposal for advancing military health policy.
Authors: Haddock C.K. , Jahnke S.A. , Poston W.S. , Williams L.N. .
Source: Military medicine, 2013 May; 178(5), p. 563-9.
PMID: 23756017
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"They're going to die anyway": smoking shelters at veterans' facilities.
Authors: Offen N. , Smith E.A. , Malone R.E. .
Source: American journal of public health, 2013 Apr; 103(4), p. 604-12.
EPub date: 2013-02-14.
PMID: 23409899
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Why strong tobacco control measures "can't" be implemented in the U.S. Military: a qualitative analysis.
Authors: Smith E.A. , Malone R.E. .
Source: Military medicine, 2012 Oct; 177(10), p. 1202-7.
PMID: 23113448
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Menthol cigarette pricing at military and community retail outlets in the United States.
Authors: Poston W.S. , Jahnke S.A. , Haddock C.K. , Hyder M.L. , Taylor J.E. , Lando H.A. , Kaipust C.M. .
Source: BMC public health, 2012-09-01; 12, p. 731.
EPub date: 2012-09-01.
PMID: 22938755
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A national survey of cigarette prices at military retail outlets.
Authors: Jahnke S.A. , Haddock C.K. , Poston W.S. , Hyder M.L. , Lando H. .
Source: JAMA, 2011-12-14; 306(22), p. 2456-7.
PMID: 22166604
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Military tobacco policies: the good, the bad, and the ugly.
Authors: Jahnke S.A. , Hoffman K.M. , Haddock C.K. , Long M.A. , Williams L.N. , Lando H.A. , Poston W.S. .
Source: Military medicine, 2011 Dec; 176(12), p. 1382-7.
PMID: 22338352
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A content analysis of tobacco control policy in the U.S. Department of Defense.
Authors: Hoffman K.M. , Poston W.S. , Jitnarin N. , Jahnke S.A. , Hughey J. , Lando H.A. , Williams L.N. , Haddock K. .
Source: Journal of public health policy, 2011 Aug; 32(3), p. 334-49.
EPub date: 2011-03-03.
PMID: 21368849
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Forcing the Navy to sell cigarettes on ships: how the tobacco industry and politicians torpedoed Navy tobacco control.
Authors: Offen N. , Arvey S.R. , Smith E.A. , Malone R.E. .
Source: American journal of public health, 2011 Mar; 101(3), p. 404-11.
EPub date: 2011-01-13.
PMID: 21233435
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Military line leadership and tobacco control: perspectives of military policy leaders and tobacco control managers.
Authors: Poston W.S. , Suminski R.R. , Hoffman K.M. , Jitnarin N. , Hughey J. , Lando H.A. , Winsby A. , Haddock K. .
Source: Military medicine, 2010 Oct; 175(10), p. 811-6.
PMID: 20968274
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A qualitative analysis of the tobacco control climate in the U.S. military.
Authors: Jahnke S.A. , Haddock C.K. , Poston W.S. , Hoffman K.M. , Hughey J. , Lando H.A. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2010 Feb; 12(2), p. 88-95.
EPub date: 2010-01-22.
PMID: 20097841
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"Everywhere the soldier will be": wartime tobacco promotion in the US military.
Authors: Smith E.A. , Malone R.E. .
Source: American journal of public health, 2009 Sep; 99(9), p. 1595-602.
EPub date: 2009-07-16.
PMID: 19608945
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Tobacco promotion to military personnel: "the plums are here to be plucked".
Authors: Smith E.A. , Malone R.E. .
Source: Military medicine, 2009 Aug; 174(8), p. 797-806.
PMID: 19743733
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Advance and retreat: tobacco control policy in the U.S. military.
Authors: Arvey S.R. , Malone R.E. .
Source: Military medicine, 2008 Oct; 173(10), p. 985-91.
PMID: 19160617
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An analysis of messages about tobacco in the Military Times magazines.
Authors: Haddock C.K. , Hoffman K. , Taylor J.E. , Schwab L. , Poston W.S. , Lando H.A. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2008 Jul; 10(7), p. 1191-7.
PMID: 18629729
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An analysis of messages about tobacco in military installation newspapers.
Authors: Haddock C.K. , Parker L.C. , Taylor J.E. , Poston W.S. , Lando H. , Talcott G.W. .
Source: American journal of public health, 2005 Aug; 95(8), p. 1458-63.
PMID: 16043672
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