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Grant Details

Grant Number: 1R21CA184634-01 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Cobb, Caroline
Organization: Virginia Commonwealth University
Project Title: Behavior and Toxicant Exposure Among Dual Users of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes
Fiscal Year: 2014


DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): While adult smoking prevalence stagnates in the United States, new noncombustible tobacco products like electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are gaining force. Indeed, recent reports from the tobacco industry (Altria, Lorillard, and Reynolds American) and e-cigarette manufacturers (NJOY) confirm an aggressive commitment to the sale of these products, and national estimates of e-cigarette prevalence reflect a shift in awareness and use. Data from the analytical laboratory suggest that e-cigarette nicotine liquids and associated aerosol contain variable amounts of nicotine and very low levels of carcinogens relative to tobacco cigarettes. Acute clinical studies of e-cigarettes indicate significant nicotin delivery under some conditions and no carbon monoxide (CO) exposure. It is unknown how e- cigarettes affect tobacco use behavior and toxicant exposure, particularly among those who continue to smoke cigarettes. This project adapts a previous model used to evaluate potential reduced exposure products ('PREPs') to examine how e-cigarettes affect measures of harm potential among cigarette smokers. Current dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes (N=28) will complete four, 5-day conditions that differ by tobacco products used ad libitum: 1) cigarette and e-cigarette (dual use), 2) cigarette-only, 3) e-cigarette-only, and 4) no tobacco/nicotine. Condition order will be assigned using a balanced Latin square design, and products will be participants' own brand cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Tobacco product consumption will be assessed using physical product counts and daily monitoring, and toxicant exposure will be measured thrice weekly via using CO, urinary cotinine, and the sum of two urinary metabolites of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine and potent lung carcinogen NNK (total NNAL). Data from the dual and single product use conditions will be used to assess changes in tobacco product consumption. Data from all conditions will be used to assess changes in toxicant exposure during dual use in comparison to single product use and no tobacco/nicotine use. Secondary analyses include evaluating cardiovascular and subjective effects associated with dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes and characterizing dual use patterns over a 5-day period. Results from this exploratory R21 project will address whether dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes decreases, has little effect on, or increases measures of harm potential relative to single product use and no tobacco/nicotine use. In light of the lack of previous literature in this area and increasing e-cigarette prevalence and product promotion, this research will be essential to inform Center for Tobacco Product deliberations on how best to regulate approval and marketing of existing and new e-cigarette products. This project will also aid the development of a future R01 grant submission related to a longer term and more detailed assessment of the effects of e-cigarette use on cigarette smoking behavior.


Tobacco-use behavior and toxicant exposure among current dual users of electronic cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes.
Authors: Cobb C.O. , Lester R.C. , Rudy A.K. , Hoetger C. , Scott M. , Austin M. , Montpetit A. , Lipato T. , Graham A.L. , Barnes A.J. , et al. .
Source: Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology, 2021 Dec; 29(6), p. 625-635.
EPub date: 2020-07-13.
PMID: 32658532
Related Citations

Corrigendum to "Influence of electronic cigarette liquid flavors and nicotine concentration on subjective measures of abuse liability in young adult cigarette smokers" [Drug Alcohol Depend. 203 (2019) 27-34].
Authors: Cobb C.O. , Lopez A.A. , Soule E.K. , Yen M.S. , Rumsey H. , Scholtes R.L. , Rudy A.K. , Lipato T. , Guy M. , Eissenberg T. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2021-05-01; 222, p. 108645.
EPub date: 2021-03-26.
PMID: 33780790
Related Citations

Effect of e-cigarette advertisement themes on hypothetical e-cigarette purchasing in price-responsive adolescents.
Authors: Barnes A.J. , Bono R.S. , Rudy A.K. , Hoetger C. , Nicksic N.E. , Cobb C.O. .
Source: Addiction (Abingdon, England), 2020 Dec; 115(12), p. 2357-2368.
EPub date: 2020-05-14.
PMID: 32285978
Related Citations

Influence of electronic cigarette liquid flavors and nicotine concentration on subjective measures of abuse liability in young adult cigarette smokers.
Authors: Cobb C.O. , Lopez A.A. , Soule E.K. , Yen M.S. , Rumsey H. , Lester Scholtes R. , Rudy A.K. , Lipato T. , Guy M. , Eissenberg T. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2019-10-01; 203, p. 27-34.
EPub date: 2019-08-01.
PMID: 31401532
Related Citations

Influence of Electronic Cigarette Characteristics on Susceptibility, Perceptions, and Abuse Liability Indices among Combustible Tobacco Cigarette Smokers and Non-Smokers.
Authors: Hoetger C. , Bono R.S. , Nicksic N.E. , Barnes A.J. , Cobb C.O. .
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 2019-05-23; 16(10), .
EPub date: 2019-05-23.
PMID: 31126016
Related Citations

"Think it. Mix it. Vape it.": A Content Analysis on E-Cigarette Radio Advertisements.
Authors: Nicksic N.E. , Brosnan P.G. , Chowdhury N. , Barnes A.J. , Cobb C.O. .
Source: Substance use & misuse, 2019; 54(8), p. 1355-1364.
EPub date: 2019-03-12.
PMID: 30860933
Related Citations

Patterns and Correlates of Tobacco and Cannabis co-use by Tobacco Product Type: Findings from the Virginia Youth Survey.
Authors: Cobb C.O. , Soule E.K. , Rudy A.K. , Sutter M.E. , Cohn A.M. .
Source: Substance use & misuse, 2018-12-06; 53(14), p. 2310-2319.
EPub date: 2018-07-02.
PMID: 29963944
Related Citations

Tobacco Marketing, E-cigarette Susceptibility, and Perceptions among Adults.
Authors: Nicksic N.E. , Snell L.M. , Rudy A.K. , Cobb C.O. , Barnes A.J. .
Source: American journal of health behavior, 2017-09-01; 41(5), p. 579-590.
PMID: 28760180
Related Citations

Measurement of smoking behavior: Comparison of self-reports, returned cigarette butts, and toxicant levels.
Authors: Blank M.D. , Breland A.B. , Enlow P.T. , Duncan C. , Metzger A. , Cobb C.O. .
Source: Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology, 2016 Oct; 24(5), p. 348-355.
EPub date: 2016-06-27.
PMID: 27347741
Related Citations

Associations between unhealthy dieting behaviors and tobacco use among adolescents.
Authors: Sutter M.E. , Nasim A. , Veldheer S. , Cobb C.O. .
Source: Journal of eating disorders, 2016; 4, p. 39.
EPub date: 2016-12-15.
PMID: 28018597
Related Citations

Electronic cigarettes and nicotine dependence: evolving products, evolving problems.
Authors: Cobb C.O. , Hendricks P.S. , Eissenberg T. .
Source: BMC medicine, 2015-05-21; 13, p. 119.
EPub date: 2015-05-21.
PMID: 25998379
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