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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA157509-02 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Brown, Barbara
Organization: University Of Utah
Project Title: Complete the Streets 3 Ways: Effects on Activity and Bmi
Fiscal Year: 2012
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DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Greater levels of physical activity relate to obesity prevention and reduced risk of some cancers, heart disease and diabetes. A growing number of correlational studies demonstrate how physical activity and obesity relate to active living community design features, such as walkable neighborhoods and active transportation opportunities including light rail stops, bike paths, and multi-use trails. Yet few prospective studies exist to document health effects of natural interventions in neighborhoods receiving physical changes supportive of healthy physical activity. This study takes advantage of a rare opportunity to conduct a quasi-experimental study in a neighborhood before and after a particularly rich natural intervention creates a "Complete Street" with a new rail line, a bike path, and a multi-use trail. Complete Streets are increasingly popular designs intended to support transportation by modes other than cars. We study the new Complete Streets both by direct observation and through the experiences of local residents. First, trained observers will count users of the Complete Street both pre- and post-construction of the Complete Street elements, with nearby streets serving as controls. Second, we compare residents living close to (intervention group) and far from (control group) the Complete Streets intervention before and after construction. Residents will be measured for BMI (height, weight), wear accelerometers and GPS units for one- week pre- and post- Complete Streets construction and complete surveys for socioeconomic, attitudinal and behavioral data. We will also assess both macro environmental walkability for large areas of the neighborhood and micro environmental walkability for the routes to and along the Complete Street and nearby streets using secondary data and block by block audits by trained raters. These methods enable us to detail where and how much physical activity residents obtain and whether social, behavioral, and health-related changes are associated with the Complete Streets intervention. We examine effects at Time 1 (pre-construction), Time 2 (post-construction) and Time 3 (follow-up). We hypothesize several effects, net of controls: a) The Complete Street intervention relates to an increase in transit riders, cyclists, and pedestrians, compared to control streets from Time 1 to Times 2 and 3, according to structured observations. b) compared to living far, living close to the Complete Street intervention relates to bigger Time 1 to Time 2 increases in active use of the Complete Streets (e.g., walking, bicycling, as measured by GPS, accelerometry and self-report). c) Resident-perceived walkability and rated walkability relates to greater use of the Complete Street area, both cross sectionally and from Time 1 to Time 2 (according to surveys, environmental audits, and GIS indicators of walkability). A secondary analysis tests whether perceived crime dampens female use. d) Users of Complete Streets will demonstrate healthier changes in Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA from Time 1 to 2), BMI and obesity status (Times 1, 2, & 3) compared to non-users. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This project tests the idea that when communities are designed so that it is easy and safe for people to be more physically active in their everyday travel and use of the neighborhood, they will get more moderate intensity physical activity ("if you build it, they will come"), which will help them maintain a healthier weight. The study examines a road reconstruction that will provide a rich set of alternatives to attract many kinds of users: A light rail line, a bike path, and a multiuse trail. Participants will receive feedback on their objectively measured physical activity.

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Analyzing Walking Route Choice through Built Environments using Random Forests and Discrete Choice Techniques.
Authors: Tribby C.P. , Miller H.J. , Brown B.B. , Werner C.M. , Smith K.R. .
Source: Environment And Planning. B, Urban Analytics And City Science, 2017 Nov; 44(6), p. 1145-1167.
EPub date: 2016-07-20 00:00:00.0.
PMID: 29308435
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Walkability, complete streets, and gender: Who benefits most?
Authors: Jensen W.A. , Stump T.K. , Brown B.B. , Werner C.M. , Smith K.R. .
Source: Health & Place, 2017-10-09 00:00:00.0; 48, p. 80-89.
EPub date: 2017-10-09 00:00:00.0.
PMID: 29024906
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Active Transportation on a Complete Street: Perceived and Audited Walkability Correlates.
Authors: Jensen W.A. , Brown B.B. , Smith K.R. , Brewer S.C. , Amburgey J.W. , McIff B. .
Source: International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health, 2017-09-05 00:00:00.0; 14(9), .
EPub date: 2017-09-05 00:00:00.0.
PMID: 28872595
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Transit Rider Body Mass Index Before and After Completion of Street Light-Rail Line in Utah.
Authors: Brown B.B. , Smith K.R. , Jensen W.A. , Tharp D. .
Source: American Journal Of Public Health, 2017 Sep; 107(9), p. 1484-1486.
EPub date: 2017-07-20 00:00:00.0.
PMID: 28727533
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Complex active travel bout motivations: Gender, place, and social context associations.
Authors: Brown B.B. , Smith K.R. .
Source: Journal Of Transport & Health, 2017 Sep; 6, p. 335-346.
EPub date: 2017-02-15 00:00:00.0.
PMID: 29104857
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Geographic Regions For Assessing Built Environmental Correlates With Walking Trips: A Comparison Using Different Metrics And Model Designs
Authors: Tribby C.P. , Miller H.J. , Brown B.B. , Smith K.R. , Werner C.M. .
Source: Health & Place, 2017-02-23 00:00:00.0; 45, p. 1-9.
PMID: 28237743
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Walking in Two French Neighborhoods: A Study of How Park Numbers and Locations Relate to Everyday Walking.
Authors: Rioux L. , Werner C.M. , Mokounkolo R. , Brown B.B. .
Source: Journal Of Environmental Psychology, 2016 Dec; 48, p. 169-184.
EPub date: 2016-10-13 00:00:00.0.
PMID: 28579664
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A Complete Street Intervention For Walking To Transit, Nontransit Walking, And Bicycling: A Quasi-experimental Demonstration Of Increased Use
Authors: Brown B.B. , Smith K.R. , Tharp D. , Werner C.M. , Tribby C.P. , Miller H.J. , Jensen W. .
Source: Journal Of Physical Activity & Health, 2016 Nov; 13(11), p. 1210-1219.
PMID: 27334024
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Changes in bicycling over time associated with a new bike lane: relations with kilocalories energy expenditure and body mass index.
Authors: Brown B.B. , Tharp D. , Tribby C.P. , Smith K.R. , Miller H.J. , Werner C.M. .
Source: Journal Of Transport & Health, 2016 Sep; 3(3), p. 357-365.
PMID: 27672561
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Environmental, behavioral, and psychological predictors of transit ridership: Evidence from a community intervention.
Authors: Brown B.B. , Werner C.M. , Smith K.R. , Tribby C.P. , Miller H.J. , Jensen W.A. , Tharp D. .
Source: Journal Of Environmental Psychology, 2016 Jun; 46, p. 188-196.
PMID: 27672237
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Evaluating the attractiveness of a new light rail extension: Testing simple change and displacement change hypotheses.
Authors: Werner C.M. , Brown B.B. , Tribby C.P. , Tharp D. , Flick K. , Miller H.J. , Smith K.R. , Jensen W. .
Source: Transport Policy, 2016 Jan; 45, p. 15-23.
PMID: 26543329
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Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures.
Authors: Tribby C.P. , Miller H.J. , Brown B.B. , Werner C.M. , Smith K.R. .
Source: Journal Of Transport And Land Use, 2016; 9(1), p. 187-207.
PMID: 27213027
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Public transit generates new physical activity: Evidence from individual GPS and accelerometer data before and after light rail construction in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
Authors: Miller H.J. , Tribby C.P. , Brown B.B. , Smith K.R. , Werner C.M. , Wolf J. , Wilson L. , Oliveira M.G. .
Source: Health & Place, 2015 Nov; 36, p. 8-17.
PMID: 26340643
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Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction.
Authors: Brown B.B. , Werner C.M. , Tribby C.P. , Miller H.J. , Smith K.R. .
Source: American Journal Of Public Health, 2015 Jul; 105(7), p. 1468-74.
PMID: 25973829
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Physical activity mediates the relationship between perceived crime safety and obesity.
Authors: Brown B.B. , Werner C.M. , Smith K.R. , Tribby C.P. , Miller H.J. .
Source: Preventive Medicine, 2014 Sep; 66, p. 140-4.
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Adding maps (GPS) to accelerometry data to improve study participants' recall of physical activity: a methodological advance in physical activity research.
Authors: Brown B.B. , Wilson L. , Tribby C.P. , Werner C.M. , Wolf J. , Miller H.J. , Smith K.R. .
Source: British Journal Of Sports Medicine, 2014 Jul; 48(13), p. 1054-8.
PMID: 24815545
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