DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This is a competing continuation application. The overall goals of this longitudinal study are to examine the etiologic determinants and consequences of African-American and Puerto Rican adult tobacco use and dependence. The sample (N=500) was interviewed at four points in time: early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence, and young adulthood. A fifth wave of data collection is proposed for the participants, who will be an average age of 32, and their partners, to accomplish the following: (1) examine interrelations and interactions of personality (including psychopathology), family, peer, ecological, and cultural factors as they affect the course of tobacco use and dependence over time (stability and change); (2) study the consequences of long-term tobacco use and dependence on adult psychopathology and functioning; and (3) examine the impact of parental tobacco use and dependence on precursors of offspring tobacco use, including offspring externalizing, internalizing, and parents' expectations of offspring's future smoking. As in the past, separate interviews with adults will be conducted in private by trained interviewers. Scales with adequate psychometric properties measuring the independent variables will be developed from the interview schedules. The primary analytic techniques will be causal analysis, logistic regression analysis, and growth mixture modeling. The significance of this study lies in its in-depth intrapersonal and interpersonal data available at several stages of development. We can examine the pathways to tobacco use and dependence from early adolescence through adulthood as well as the course of tobacco use and dependence overtime, i.e., the factors related to the respondent's becoming more or less involved in tobacco use and dependence over a span of 17 years. We can also examine the factors related to cessation of use. Such knowledge will help pinpoint those adolescents and young adults at risk for later tobacco use and dependence and will provide detailed and specific guidelines for prevention and treatment. Our longitudinal study of the consequences of tobacco use and dependence in African-Americans and Puerto Ricans is unique in that the long-term psychosocial effects of tobacco use and dependence can be evaluated to see if their impact is cumulative. Identification of adolescent and young adult factors that can exacerbate the adverse impact of the consequences of tobacco use and dependence on later adult psychosocial functioning will provide additional information necessary for effective prevention and treatment efforts. Findings will help physicians, educators, and policy makers provide healthy environments.
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