DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A number of studies have suggested a link between stress and poor quit rates among African Americans. African-American men bear the greatest burden of tobacco-related causes of cancer. Thus, a major objective of the proposed pilot study is to explore what factors impact how adult African- American male smokers cope with stress. We hypothesize that cultural (e.g. goal-striving stress, spirituality, John Henryism) and gender-related (e.g. masculine gender role stress and male role norms) factors influence coping among urban adult African-American males and their nicotine dependence. We believe examining cultural and gender-related factors will contribute to further understanding of smoking behaviors, nicotine dependence and related health disparities among African-American men. Therefore, the specific aims for this study are to: 1) examine whether cultural specific cultural strategies influence nicotine dependence in adult AA male smokers, 2) explore whether cultural factors (e.g. John Henryism) influence tobacco dependence in adult AA male smokers, 3) examine whether gender- related factors (e.g. Male Role Norms) influence tobacco dependence in adult AA male smokers, 4) explore whether cultural factors influence coping efforts in response to stressors in adult AA male smokers, 5) investigate whether gender-related factors influence coping efforts in response to stressors in adult AA male smoker, 6) use qualitative methods to better understand these variables in the context of a pilot stress management intervention (R21) to reduce tobacco dependence in adult AA male smokers. The aims of this study will be carried out using both quantitative and qualitative methods. One hundred current or recent adult African-American male smokers and 100 adult African-American non smokers will be recruited from urban African-American barbershops in Richmond, VA. Participants will complete a self-administered survey. A sub-sample of the 200 survey participants (10 smokers and 10 non-smokers) will be recruited to participate in individual qualitative interviews. Base on the survey results, the qualitative interviews will be used to obtain in-depth data regarding gender-related and cultural factors related to stress, coping and smoking behaviors and nicotine addiction. Results of the proposed project will have applicability for better understanding smoking behaviors and nicotine dependence among adult African-American male smokers. Further, the results of this pilot study will serve as the bases for developing a pilot stress management intervention for adult African-American male smokers. We plan to test this pilot intervention through the R21 funding mechanism.
PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Project Narrative Despite having similar smoking rates as White men for the past 10 years, African-American men have the highest incidence and death rates from oral/pharynx, pancreatic, esophageal, and lung larynx cancers. Thus, more research is needed to develop successful strategies to decrease smoking among African-American males.
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