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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA120412-04 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Tiffany, Stephen
Organization: University Of Utah
Project Title: Hair Analyses of Nicotine Exposure: Quantifying Low-Level Smoking
Fiscal Year: 2010


DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Although the prototypical cigarette smoker is characterized as someone who consistently smokes a pack of cigarettes or more each day, a large number of people described as current smokers neither smoke daily nor consume a pack of cigarettes on days they do smoke. These low-level smokers incur increased health risk as a consequence of their inhalation of smoke. Moreover, for many, low-level smoking represents an important transition period for the development of nicotine dependence, the process presumably responsible for the intractability of cigarette smoking in heavy, chronic smokers. Because of the serious health consequences of low-level smoking and the important role of low-level smoking in emergence of nicotine dependence, it is important to conduct systematic research on this phenomenon. Research on low-level smoking is hampered by the relative absence of self-report instruments that can create an accurate profile of low-level smoking over time. Under ideal circumstances, the accuracy of self-report smoking measures would be validated by biological assays of nicotine exposure. Unfortunately, most conventional biomarker assays are sensitive only to relatively recent smoking and are not particularly useful in accurately characterizing low-levels of smoking. The research in this proposal is designed to validate the systematic use of biomarkers, hair nicotine and cotinine levels, as an accurate index of known low-level nicotine exposure. The research will also comparatively evaluate measures of self-report smoking with the intent of identifying measures that are maximally sensitive to variations in low-level smoking. The developed biomarkers will then be used to validate these self-report measures of smoking behavior. This research will integrate state-of-the-art pharmacology, analytical chemistry, and behavioral science in the development of new tools for the assessment of low-level cigarette smoking. This interdisciplinary approach offers the opportunity to simultaneously validate biological and behavioral indices of low-level smoking. Finally, this research will provide new tools, biological and behavioral, with considerable utility for our understanding of the impact of low-level smoking on health and on the development of nicotine dependence.


A comparative evaluation of self-report and biological measures of cigarette use in nondaily smokers.
Authors: Wray J.M. , Gass J.C. , Miller E.I. , Wilkins D.G. , Rollins D.E. , Tiffany S.T. .
Source: Psychological assessment, 2016 Sep; 28(9), p. 1043-50.
EPub date: 2015-10-19.
PMID: 26479132
Related Citations

The Reliability and Stability of Puff Topography Variables in Non-Daily Smokers Assessed in the Laboratory.
Authors: Gass J.C. , Germeroth L.J. , Wray J.M. , Tiffany S.T. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2016 Apr; 18(4), p. 484-90.
EPub date: 2015-03-05.
PMID: 25744955
Related Citations

Response Time to Craving-Item Ratings as an Implicit Measure of Craving-Related Processes.
Authors: Germeroth L.J. , Wray J.M. , Tiffany S.T. .
Source: Clinical psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 2015 Jul; 3(4), p. 530-544.
PMID: 26405616
Related Citations

An examination of reactivity to craving assessment: craving to smoke does not change over the course of a multi-item craving questionnaire.
Authors: Germeroth L.J. , Tiffany S.T. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2015 Jun; 45, p. 74-8.
EPub date: 2015-01-19.
PMID: 25644591
Related Citations

The magnitude and reliability of cue-specific craving in nondependent smokers.
Authors: Wray J.M. , Gass J.C. , Tiffany S.T. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2014-01-01; 134, p. 304-308.
EPub date: 2013-11-06.
PMID: 24309295
Related Citations

Diagnostic utility of craving in predicting nicotine dependence: impact of craving content and item stability.
Authors: Germeroth L.J. , Wray J.M. , Gass J.C. , Tiffany S.T. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2013 Dec; 15(12), p. 1988-95.
EPub date: 2013-07-01.
PMID: 23817585
Related Citations

A systematic review of the relationships between craving and smoking cessation.
Authors: Wray J.M. , Gass J.C. , Tiffany S.T. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2013 Jul; 15(7), p. 1167-82.
EPub date: 2013-01-04.
PMID: 23291636
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Beyond drug use: a systematic consideration of other outcomes in evaluations of treatments for substance use disorders.
Authors: Tiffany S.T. , Friedman L. , Greenfield S.F. , Hasin D.S. , Jackson R. .
Source: Addiction (Abingdon, England), 2012 Apr; 107(4), p. 709-18.
EPub date: 2011-10-07.
PMID: 21981638
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The clinical significance of drug craving.
Authors: Tiffany S.T. , Wray J.M. .
Source: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2012 Feb; 1248, p. 1-17.
EPub date: 2011-12-16.
PMID: 22172057
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Alcohol use as a signal for sensitivity to nicotine dependence among recent onset smokers.
Authors: Dierker L.C. , Rose J.S. , Donny E. , Tiffany S. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2011 Apr; 36(4), p. 421-6.
EPub date: 2010-12-15.
PMID: 21232875
Related Citations

A novel validated procedure for the determination of nicotine, eight nicotine metabolites and two minor tobacco alkaloids in human plasma or urine by solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.
Authors: Miller E.I. , Norris H.R. , Rollins D.E. , Tiffany S.T. , Wilkins D.G. .
Source: Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences, 2010-03-15; 878(9-10), p. 725-37.
EPub date: 2009-12-22.
PMID: 20097626
Related Citations

The continuing conundrum of craving.
Authors: Tiffany S.T. , Wray J. .
Source: Addiction (Abingdon, England), 2009 Oct; 104(10), p. 1618-9.
EPub date: 2009-06-25.
PMID: 19558571
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Cue-reactivity in rodents-how predictable?
Authors: Shoaib M. .
Source: Addiction (Abingdon, England), 2009 Oct; 104(10), p. 1619-20.
EPub date: 2009-06-25.
PMID: 19558570
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On the nature of nicotine addiction: a taxometric analysis.
Authors: Goedeker K.C. , Tiffany S.T. .
Source: Journal of abnormal psychology, 2008 Nov; 117(4), p. 896-909.
PMID: 19025235
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