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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA113828-04 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Norman, Gregory
Organization: University Of California, San Diego
Project Title: Multilevel Mechanisms of Physical Activity Change
Fiscal Year: 2008


DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The benefits of physical activity are well-established for health promotion and disease prevention. Physical activity and sedentary behavior are contributing factors to multiple health problems in children and adults including obesity, cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, there has been little systematic research on how hypothesized mechanisms of change work across intra-personal, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Understanding behavior change mechanisms and how they work together is crucial to developing effective behavior change interventions. The principal goal of this project is to evaluate mechanisms of physical activity and sedentary behavior change based on psychosocial and ecological models. We propose to analyze three longitudinal intervention trial datasets from the PACE Projects (Patient-centered Assessment & Counseling for Exercise plus nutrition, NCI funded) to determine the functions and interactions of multiple levels of theoretically based mechanisms of behavior change. The three PACE+ studies include samples of adolescents (n = 878), overweight women (n = 401), and overweight men (expected n = 400). These datasets include objective measures of physical activity and sedentary time as well as measures of psychosocial and perceived environment-constructs. One of the innovative features of this research is to expand these existing datasets by creating objective physical environment variables using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). State-of-the-science measures of urban design and access to utilitarian and recreational facilities will be developed for each dataset. Adding measures of the physical environment to our existing datasets will allow us to systematically analyze the interaction of intra-personal, interpersonal, and environmental mechanisms of physical activity and sedentary behavior. We will also determine how these mechanisms mediate and moderate the effects of behavior change interventions. A priori hypothesized mediator and moderator relationships will be tested using structural equation modeling. Exploratory analyses will examine mechanism interactions using segmentation analysis. This study will be the first true ecological analysis of physical activity and sedentary behavior mechanisms by integrating a systematic evaluation framework, multiple datasets that share common constructs and intervention strategies, and multiple levels of behavior change mechanisms. The research will be conducted by ah experienced and multidisciplinary team of experienced researchers with backgrounds in psychology, public health, urban planning, and exercise science. This research holds promise to advance both the underlying theory of physical activity research and the effectiveness of physical activity interventions.


Longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures in physical activity research: An application to adolescent data.
Authors: Roesch S.C. , Norman G.J. , Merz E.L. , Sallis J.F. , Patrick K. .
Source: Journal of applied social psychology, 2013-04-01; 43(4), p. 721-729.
PMID: 23734064
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Physical activity and dietary behavior change in Internet-based weight loss interventions: comparing two multiple-behavior change indices.
Authors: Carlson J.A. , Sallis J.F. , Ramirez E.R. , Patrick K. , Norman G.J. .
Source: Preventive medicine, 2012 Jan; 54(1), p. 50-4.
EPub date: 2011-11-03.
PMID: 22085706
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Adolescent screen time and rules to limit screen time in the home.
Authors: Ramirez E.R. , Norman G.J. , Rosenberg D.E. , Kerr J. , Saelens B.E. , Durant N. , Sallis J.F. .
Source: The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2011 Apr; 48(4), p. 379-85.
EPub date: 2010-10-15.
PMID: 21402267
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Reliability and validity of the Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) for adults.
Authors: Rosenberg D.E. , Norman G.J. , Wagner N. , Patrick K. , Calfas K.J. , Sallis J.F. .
Source: Journal of physical activity & health, 2010 Nov; 7(6), p. 697-705.
PMID: 21088299
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Examining the role of perceived susceptibility on colorectal cancer screening intention and behavior.
Authors: McQueen A. , Vernon S.W. , Rothman A.J. , Norman G.J. , Myers R.E. , Tilley B.C. .
Source: Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 2010 Oct; 40(2), p. 205-17.
PMID: 20658212
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A latent profile analysis of neighborhood recreation environments in relation to adolescent physical activity, sedentary time, and obesity.
Authors: Norman G.J. , Adams M.A. , Kerr J. , Ryan S. , Frank L.D. , Roesch S.C. .
Source: Journal of public health management and practice : JPHMP, 2010 Sep-Oct; 16(5), p. 411-9.
PMID: 20689390
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Do neighborhood environments moderate the effect of physical activity lifestyle interventions in adults?
Authors: Kerr J. , Norman G.J. , Adams M.A. , Ryan S. , Frank L. , Sallis J.F. , Calfas K.J. , Patrick K. .
Source: Health & place, 2010 Sep; 16(5), p. 903-8.
EPub date: 2010-05-11.
PMID: 20510642
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Intervention-mediated effects for adult physical activity: A latent growth curve analysis.
Authors: Roesch S.C. , Norman G.J. , Villodas F. , Sallis J.F. , Patrick K. .
Source: Social science & medicine (1982), 2010 Aug; 71(3), p. 494-501.
EPub date: 2010-05-20.
PMID: 20621747
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Translating physical activity recommendations for overweight adolescents to steps per day.
Authors: Adams M.A. , Caparosa S. , Thompson S. , Norman G.J. .
Source: American journal of preventive medicine, 2009 Aug; 37(2), p. 137-40.
EPub date: 2009-06-12.
PMID: 19524391
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Reconceptualizing decisional balance in an adolescent sun protection intervention: mediating effects and theoretical interpretations.
Authors: Adams M.A. , Norman G.J. , Hovell M.F. , Sallis J.F. , Patrick K. .
Source: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 2009 Mar; 28(2), p. 217-25.
PMID: 19290714
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Latent growth curve modeling of adolescent physical activity: testing parallel process and mediation models.
Authors: Roesch S.C. , Norman G.J. , Adams M.A. , Kerr J. , Sallis J.F. , Ryan S. , Calfas K.J. , Patrick K. .
Source: Journal of health psychology, 2009 Mar; 14(2), p. 313-25.
PMID: 19237499
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Validation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) items using geographic information systems.
Authors: Adams M.A. , Ryan S. , Kerr J. , Sallis J.F. , Patrick K. , Frank L.D. , Norman G.J. .
Source: Journal of physical activity & health, 2009; 6 Suppl 1, p. S113-23.
PMID: 19998857
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Exercise aids, neighborhood safety, and physical activity in adolescents and parents.
Authors: Kerr J. , Norman G.J. , Sallis J.F. , Patrick K. .
Source: Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 2008 Jul; 40(7), p. 1244-8.
PMID: 18580403
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Validating stage of change measures for physical activity and dietary behaviors for overweight women.
Authors: Robinson A.H. , Norman G.J. , Sallis J.F. , Calfas K.J. , Rock C.L. , Patrick K. .
Source: International journal of obesity (2005), 2008 Jul; 32(7), p. 1137-44.
EPub date: 2008-05-20.
PMID: 18490930
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Answering the "what works?". Question in health behavior change.
Authors: Norman G.J. .
Source: American journal of preventive medicine, 2008 May; 34(5), p. 449-50.
PMID: 18407014
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Patterns and correlates of multiple risk behaviors in overweight women.
Authors: Sanchez A. , Norman G.J. , Sallis J.F. , Calfas K.J. , Rock C. , Patrick K. .
Source: Preventive medicine, 2008 Mar; 46(3), p. 196-202.
EPub date: 2007-10-18.
PMID: 18022220
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A review of eHealth interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change.
Authors: Norman G.J. , Zabinski M.F. , Adams M.A. , Rosenberg D.E. , Yaroch A.L. , Atienza A.A. .
Source: American journal of preventive medicine, 2007 Oct; 33(4), p. 336-345.
PMID: 17888860
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A randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention for adolescent sun protection behaviors.
Authors: Norman G.J. , Adams M.A. , Calfas K.J. , Covin J. , Sallis J.F. , Rossi J.S. , Redding C.A. , Cella J. , Patrick K. .
Source: Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 2007 Feb; 161(2), p. 146-52.
PMID: 17283299
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