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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA092505-06 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Glanz, Karen
Organization: Emory University
Project Title: Diffusion of an Effective Skin Cancer Prevention Program
Fiscal Year: 2007


DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States, and it is also one of the most preventable. Preventive behaviors include reducing peak sun exposure, wearing sunscreen, seeking shade, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding sunburn. Few skin cancer prevention programs in outdoor settings have been evaluated in controlled trials, and as with many preventive interventions, little is known about how to successfully disseminate those that are found efficacious. The efficacy of the Pool Cool program in aquatic settings (swimming pools) was demonstrated in a previous trial, and a Dissemination Pilot Study with 186 swimming pools was completed. The aims of this study are to evaluate the effects of two strategies for diffusion of the Pool Cool skin cancer prevention program on: program implementation, maintenance, and sustainability; organizational and environmental supports for sun protection; and sun protection habits and sunbums among children. Ancillary aims are to examine predictors of diffusion, examine the mediating role of lifeguards and aquatic instructors; characterize correlates of participation in a diffusion trial and rates of spontaneous diffusion; and investigate longitudinal patterns of sun protection behaviors over multiple years. The study will use a three-level nested experimental design; the three levels are Field Coordinators, swimming pools, and children ages 5 to 10 years in swimming lessons. 32 Field Coordinators will be randomized into Basic and Enhanced (reinforcement + feedback) diffusion conditions. Intervention materials for the children, and strategies for the Field Coordinators, are based principally on Social Cognitive Theory and Diffusion of Innovations. Each Field Coordinator will work with 10 pools for three years (n=320 pools final sample). A sample of 20 parents per pool will be surveyed about their children at baseline and at the end of each summer (n= 6,400 final sample); a cohort sub-sample will be followed over multiple years. The main outcomes of interest will be pool level diffusion endpoints, organizational/environmental change at pools, and child sun protection habits and sunburns. Process evaluation will supplement outcome data. The results of this research will increase our knowledge of the diffusion of evidence-based cancer prevention programs in community settings, and of their long term maintenance and sustainability. The findings will make a significant contribution to our understanding of skin cancer prevention behaviors of individuals and aquatics organizations.


Randomized Trial of Two Dissemination Strategies for a Skin Cancer Prevention Program in Aquatic Settings.
Authors: Glanz K. , Escoffery C. , Elliott T. , Nehl E.J. .
Source: American journal of public health, 2015 Jul; 105(7), p. 1415-23.
EPub date: 2014-12-18.
PMID: 25521872
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Vitamin D beliefs and associations with sunburns, sun exposure, and sun protection.
Authors: Kim B.H. , Glanz K. , Nehl E.J. .
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 2012 07; 9(7), p. 2386-95.
EPub date: 2012-07-04.
PMID: 22851950
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Changes in sunburn and tanning attitudes among lifeguards over a summer season.
Authors: Hiemstra M. , Glanz K. , Nehl E. .
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2012 Mar; 66(3), p. 430-7.
EPub date: 2011-07-13.
PMID: 21745696
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Analysis of participatory photojournalism in a widely disseminated skin cancer prevention program.
Authors: Hall D. , Kline M. , Glanz K. .
Source: Health promotion practice, 2011 Sep; 12(5), p. 666-72.
EPub date: 2010-04-26.
PMID: 20421408
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Validity of self-reported solar UVR exposure compared with objectively measured UVR exposure.
Authors: Glanz K. , Gies P. , O'Riordan D.L. , Elliott T. , Nehl E. , McCarty F. , Davis E. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 2010 Dec; 19(12), p. 3005-12.
EPub date: 2010-10-12.
PMID: 20940277
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Spontaneous diffusion of an effective skin cancer prevention program through Web-based access to program materials.
Authors: Hall D.M. , Escoffery C. , Nehl E. , Glanz K. .
Source: Preventing chronic disease, 2010 Nov; 7(6), p. A125.
EPub date: 2010-10-15.
PMID: 20950532
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Linking agents' activities and communication patterns in a study of the dissemination of an effective skin cancer prevention program.
Authors: Hall D. , Dubruiel N. , Elliott T. , Glanz K. .
Source: Journal of public health management and practice : JPHMP, 2009 Sep-Oct; 15(5), p. 409-15.
PMID: 19704309
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Measured occupational solar UVR exposures of lifeguards in pool settings.
Authors: Gies P. , Glanz K. , O'Riordan D. , Elliott T. , Nehl E. .
Source: American journal of industrial medicine, 2009 Aug; 52(8), p. 645-53.
PMID: 19572325
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A multi-method process evaluation for a skin cancer prevention diffusion trial.
Authors: Escoffery C. , Glanz K. , Hall D. , Elliott T. .
Source: Evaluation & the health professions, 2009 Jun; 32(2), p. 184-203.
PMID: 19448162
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A controlled trial of objective measures of sunscreen and moisturizing lotion.
Authors: Elliott T. , Nehl E.J. , Glanz K. .
Source: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 2009 May; 18(5), p. 1399-402.
PMID: 19423519
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Validity of covering-up sun-protection habits: Association of observations and self-report.
Authors: O'Riordan D.L. , Nehl E. , Gies P. , Bundy L. , Burgess K. , Davis E. , Glanz K. .
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2009 May; 60(5), p. 739-44.
EPub date: 2009-03-17.
PMID: 19278750
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Characteristics of swimming pools with high rates of objectively measured sunscreen use.
Authors: Elliott T. , Glanz K. , Nehl E.J. .
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2009 Apr; 60(4), p. 684-8.
PMID: 19293015
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Lifeguards' sun protection habits and sunburns: association with sun-safe environments and skin cancer prevention program participation.
Authors: Hall D.M. , McCarty F. , Elliott T. , Glanz K. .
Source: Archives of dermatology, 2009 Feb; 145(2), p. 139-44.
PMID: 19221258
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Validity of self-reported sunscreen use by parents, children, and lifeguards.
Authors: Glanz K. , McCarty F. , Nehl E.J. , O'Riordan D.L. , Gies P. , Bundy L. , Locke A.E. , Hall D.M. .
Source: American journal of preventive medicine, 2009 Jan; 36(1), p. 63-9.
EPub date: 2008-10-21.
PMID: 18945582
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Process evaluation of the Pool Cool Diffusion Trial for skin cancer prevention across 2 years.
Authors: Escoffery C. , Glanz K. , Elliott T. .
Source: Health education research, 2008 Aug; 23(4), p. 732-43.
EPub date: 2007-10-22.
PMID: 17956884
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A pilot study of the validity of self-reported ultraviolet radiation exposure and sun protection practices among lifeguards, parents and children.
Authors: O'Riordan D.L. , Glanz K. , Gies P. , Elliott T. .
Source: Photochemistry and photobiology, 2008 May-Jun; 84(3), p. 774-8.
EPub date: 2008-01-07.
PMID: 18179624
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Diffusion of an effective skin cancer prevention program: design, theoretical foundations, and first-year implementation.
Authors: Glanz K. , Steffen A. , Elliott T. , O'riordan D. .
Source: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 2005 Sep; 24(5), p. 477-87.
PMID: 16162042
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