Skip to main content


Because of a lapse in government funding, the information on this website may not be up to date, transactions submitted via the website may not be processed, and the agency may not be able to respond to inquiries until appropriations are enacted.

The NIH Clinical Center (the research hospital of NIH) is open. For more details about its operating status, please visit

Updates regarding government operating status and resumption of normal operations can be found at

Grant Details

Grant Number: 7R21CA100549-03 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Shadel, William
Organization: Rand Corporation
Project Title: Cigarette Ads and Smoking Motivation in Adolescence
Fiscal Year: 2005
Back to top


DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Adolescent cigarette smoking rose dramatically during the 1990's and one reason for this increase is the presence of cigarette advertising in domains accessible to adolescents. Although associations between increased cigarette advertising and increased smoking among adolescents have been persuasively documented, the individual difference mechanisms and advertising factors that contribute to this association and the precise causal role that cigarette advertising plays in influencing adolescent motivation to smoke has not been clearly established. Using a theoretical framework that integrates concepts from the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion and social cognitive conceptions of self concept development, the research proposed seeks to identify the factors in cigarette advertising that interact with features of adolescents' self-concept to causally contribute toward their motivation to smoke in the future. Phase I of the proposed study will conduct an evaluation of the degree to which cigarette advertisements are persuasive (indexed by attractiveness and likeability of source models in the advertisements, affective valence of the advertisements, and suggest that smoking or smokers hold positive personality characteristics) Phase II is an experimental study designed to evaluate whether the persuasive strength of cigarette advertisements interacts with the number of self-conflicts nonsmoking adolescents report to influence their motivation to smoke in the future. A sample of 130 nonsmoking adolescents who report a low number of self-conflicts and a sample of 130 nonsmoking adolescents who report a high number of self-conflicts will be randomly assigned to view either cigarette advertisements of weak self-concept persuasive strength or cigarette advertisements of strong self-concept persuasive strength. Attitudes toward smoking and intentions and willingness to smoke in the next year will be assessed as the dependent variables. We hypothesize that adolescents who possess a high number of self-conflicts will show more positive attitudes toward smoking and a greater willingness and intention to smoke when exposed to cigarette advertisements of strong persuasive strength. Adolescents who possess a low number of self-conflicts are not expected to be influenced by the persuasive strength of the advertisements. This research has the potential to identify those nonsmoking adolescents who are at risk for being highly susceptible to the effects of cigarette advertising.

Back to top


How Does Exposure To Cigarette Advertising Contribute To Smoking In Adolescents? The Role Of The Developing Self-concept And Identification With Advertising Models
Authors: Shadel W.G. , Tharp-Taylor S. , Fryer C.S. .
Source: Addictive Behaviors, 2009 Nov; 34(11), p. 932-7.
PMID: 19505768
Related Citations

Exposure To Cigarette Advertising And Adolescents' Intentions To Smoke: The Moderating Role Of The Developing Self-concept
Authors: Shadel W.G. , Tharp-Taylor S. , Fryer C.S. .
Source: Journal Of Pediatric Psychology, 2008 Aug; 33(7), p. 751-60.
PMID: 18356185
Related Citations

Gender Differences In Adolescents' Responses To Themes Of Relaxation In Cigarette Advertising: Relationship To Intentions To Smoke
Authors: Dirocco D.N. , Shadel W.G. .
Source: Addictive Behaviors, 2007 Feb; 32(2), p. 205-13.
PMID: 16650623
Related Citations

Back to Top