This research addresses the recommendations made by NCI's 5-A-Day 10-year evaluation team: (1) rethink the 5-A-Day message to prevent wear-out and to enhance its attractiveness, (2) rethink channel usage strategies with a focus on new media and tailored communications, and (3) develop strategies to research underserved populations. In response to these recommendations, this research will assess how theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs vary by VALS(tm) segment in a structural equation model. VALS(tm) is a marketing tool used extensively in private industry to segment communication audiences by lifestyle. VALS(tm) yields audience groups that behave differently and that hold different attitudes and social perceptions. We hypothesize that these differences will also discriminate between individuals' fruit/vegetable consumption patterns, as well as theory-based causes of consumption behavior (i.e., those outlined in the theory of planned behavior). Integrating the VALS(tm) audience segmentation typology with TPB constructs should facilitate the development of more precise and targeted interventions and communication campaigns that tout the cancer-fighting effects of eating the proper amount of fruit and vegetables. The specific aims of this research include: (1) To identify whether adults (males and female ages 18 to 74) classified in different VALS(tm) groups hold different attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions for eating fruit and vegetables. (2) To determine whether the effects of theory of planned behavior constructs - attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention - have different amounts of influence on adherence to the 5-A-Day fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines across audience segments. That is, does VALS(tm) group moderate theory of planned behavior construct relationships in a structural equation model? A cross-sectional survey of N=1,600 responses will be collected via telephone and computer-aided interviewing methods. Specifically, n=200 responses will be collected via a random dialing process. ANOVA and structural equation models will be used to test specific hypotheses generated from the research aims outlined above. Relevance Statement: To address the recommendations made by NCI's 5-A-Day evaluation team, research surrounding how the theory of planned behavior constructs vary by lifestyle-based audiences segments can help illuminate relevant and fresh messaging options for fruit and vegetable promotion. The proposed research has the potential to guide NCI's response to all three of the recommendations made by the 5-A-Day evaluation team.
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