Description (provided by applicant):
Parental smoking behavior and a number of general parenting practices have
been associated with the probability that an adolescent will become a.smoker.
Early adolescence appears to be an optimal developmental time for targeting
parental practices to reduce adolescent problem behavior. The proposed study
is a randomized, controlled trial of a telephone counseling intervention
designed to affect parenting practices previously demonstrated to influence
a dolescent smoking. Working with 2000 families with 12-14 year old
adolescents, this intervention seeks to adapt an effective school-based
program (The Adolescent Transition Program--ATP) into a community setting,
using a computer assisted telephone counseling structured protocol. We have
previously demonstrated that this type of telephone counseling is an effective
way to influence other types of health behavior. Both the ATP and our other
telephone counseling programs are based on the principles of cognitive social
learning theory and motivational interviewing.
We will enroll households from a population-based representative survey of
Californians. Intervention goals are that parents will maintain general
protective parenting practices, such as monitoring and setting limits to
autonomy within a responsive relationship with the adolescent through at least
age 16 years. Further, the intervention will encourage parents actively
partner with the California Tobacco Control Program in promoting nonsmoking
norms and nonsmoking environment, and in increasing the rate of adoption of
tobacco control related practices including, a) communicating strong parental
expectations against smoking behavior, b) establishing a smoke-free home, c)
monitoring and intervening when peers use or promote the use of tobacco, and
d) promoting demand reduction strategies to reduce adolescent receptivity to
tobacco industry promotional activity.
The primary assessment of adherence to the intervention in both study groups
as well as the effectiveness in changing smoking behavior will come from
annual surveys of adolescents. Using these data, we will identify whether the
intervention is associated with a significant reduction in the proportion of
15-16 year old adolescents who have experimented with smoking, as well as a
reduction in the probability that they will be future dependent smokers.
We will use surveys of both adolescents and parents to describe the natural
history of protective parenting during the adolescent years. We will identify
factors associated with these general protective parenting practices and
barriers to implementing these practices. The surveys will also allow us to
describe the natural history of how parents implement optimal tobacco control
parenting practices, identify potential barriers to such practices, and
develop potentially effective ways for overcoming these barriers.
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