DESCRIPTION: Tobacco use, the leading cause of premature death and disability
in the United States, is a significant family issue. Parental smoking
negatively impacts children's health and increases their risk of becoming
smokers; concerns about children are often cited as strong motivators for
parental smoking cessation. Additionally, smoking parents do not want their
children to smoke, yet are not confident they can prevent it. Children, aware
of the harms of smoking, display negative behaviors, such as nagging and
policing, towards the smoking behavior of adult loved ones. Proposed are pilot
research activities to develop an innovative family-based intervention to
encourage more effective communication and interactions between children and
adult loved ones who smoke. The overarching objectives of the intervention are
to increase adults' effectiveness in discouraging children from smoking and
reciprocally, to increase children's effectiveness in encouraging adults to
take steps towards smoking cessation. The specific aims are to: 1) develop a
prototype of a self-directed intervention composed of activities to be engaged
in together by third through fifth graders and chosen adult loved ones who
smoke; 2) evaluate the most effective methods of recruitment, surveying and
retention of participant dyads; 3) evaluate compliance with and short-term
indicators of efficacy of the intervention. Focus groups with children and
adult smokers will be conducted to guide development of the intervention
materials. Draft intervention materials will be reviewed by representatives of
the target groups using structured interviews. Fifty adult-child dyads will be
recruited from a variety of community sources, with documentation of the
success associated with each recruitment source. Thirty-five dyads will be
randomized to receive the intervention and 15 to a no-intervention condition.
Baseline and 4 month follow up surveys will be completed by all 50 dyads at
survey centers located at familiar community facilities. Surveys will assess
susceptibility to uptake of smoking among the children, type and level of
motivation for cessation and cessation attempts among the adults; and
communication about smoking for both the adults and children. Compliance with
and response to the intervention will be assessed among those randomized to the
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