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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01AR045901-04 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Elliot, Diane
Organization: Oregon Health And Science University
Project Title: Promoting Healthy Lifestyles-Alternative Models Effect
Fiscal Year: 2002


DESCRIPTION (adapted from investigator's abstract): Evidence that regular physical activity and a healthy diet prevent/treat illness and prolong life is overwhelming, yet the majority of Americans do neither. Achieving and maintaining behavior change remains a major challenge. Investigators with different theoretical orientations and expertise have designed this application to test two model- derived interventions, addressing unhealthy nutrition practices and sedentary lifestyles. The models are based on Social Learning Theory (Model 1) and the Transtheoretical Model (Model 2). Model 1 s intervention is social unit based, with all members participating together. It capitalizes on vicarious experiences, shared behavioral norms and peer influences. The Transtheoretical Model intervenes with the individual. It recognizes the dynamic nature and individual differences in the change process and defines stage of change, tailoring each interaction accordingly. Progress from the defined stage is enhanced by use of motivational theory. Fire fighters will be the participants in the study. They have a concentration of the harmful behaviors and health risks afflicting the US population, and their unique work schedules makes them ideal for both interventions. The investigators believe that the established relationship they have with firefighters should facilitate recruitment and participation, while reducing attrition. The study s primary outcomes are increased physical activity and aerobic fitness, reduced percent calories as fat, increased servings of fruit ad vegetables and normalized percent body fat. A pilot study of interventions and research process will be conducted in year one. The full outcome trial will be conducted in years two-to-four. In the full trial, firefighters from 36 stations (20-2 subjects per station) will be randomly assigned by station to 1 of 3 conditions: Model 1, Model 2, or usual practice control. Model 1 will be 11, 45-minute peer facilitated group meetings, with 5, 45-minute booster meetings the following year. Peer facilitators will be trained and use scripted lesson plans. Model 2 will use an initial physician visit, 6 health educator meetings and 18, bi-weekly follow-up phone calls. Five, 45-minute additional health educator meetings will occur the following year. The Models contact times are the same, and indices assessed are the same for all three conditions. Evaluation will occur pre- intervention and annually, with quarterly determination of the stage of change for each targeted behavior. Annual measures include maximum oxygen uptake; dietary surveys; body fat percent and distribution; indices of strength, flexibility, spine health and self-reported physical activity; and a questionnaire assessing theoretical constructs and mediating variables. During year 4, no interventions will occur, although subjects will continue to be assessed. Program implementation and fidelity will be monitored for both models, using direct observation and audio taping. Outcomes will be assessed hierarchical linear modeling, including latent and added growth models, which are appropriate for the nested subjects and repeated measures design. Investigators will identify relationships among mediators, the intervention and outcome measures. The study will compare the two health promotion paradigms and provide an understanding of how, and under what conditions behavior change can occur and be maintained.


Empiric validation of a process for behavior change.
Authors: Elliot D.L. , Goldberg L. , MacKinnon D.P. , Ranby K.W. , Kuehl K.S. , Moe E.L. .
Source: Translational behavioral medicine, 2016 09; 6(3), p. 449-56.
PMID: 27528533
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Understanding the durability of a fire department wellness program.
Authors: Mabry L. , Elliot D.L. , Mackinnon D.P. , Thoemmes F. , Kuehl K.S. .
Source: American journal of health behavior, 2013 Sep; 37(5), p. 693-702.
PMID: 23985292
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Economic benefit of the PHLAME wellness programme on firefighter injury.
Authors: Kuehl K.S. , Elliot D.L. , Goldberg L. , Moe E.L. , Perrier E. , Smith J. .
Source: Occupational medicine (Oxford, England), 2013 Apr; 63(3), p. 203-9.
EPub date: 2013-02-15.
PMID: 23416849
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Factors in adoption of a fire department wellness program: champ-and-chief model.
Authors: Kuehl H. , Mabry L. , Elliot D.L. , Kuehl K.S. , Favorite K.C. .
Source: Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2013 Apr; 55(4), p. 424-9.
PMID: 23302702
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Mechanisms of motivational interviewing in health promotion: a Bayesian mediation analysis.
Authors: Pirlott A.G. , Kisbu-Sakarya Y. , Defrancesco C.A. , Elliot D.L. , Mackinnon D.P. .
Source: The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 2012-06-08; 9(1), p. 69.
EPub date: 2012-06-08.
PMID: 22681874
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Worksite wellness program implementation: a model of translational effectiveness.
Authors: Elliot D.L. , Mackinnon D.P. , Mabry L. , Kisbu-Sakarya Y. , Defrancesco C.A. , Coxe S.J. , Kuehl K.S. , Moe E.L. , Goldberg L. , Favorite K.C. .
Source: Translational behavioral medicine, 2012 Jun; 2(2), p. 228-35.
PMID: 24073114
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A comparison of four approaches to account for method effects in latent state-trait analyses.
Authors: Geiser C. , Lockhart G. .
Source: Psychological methods, 2012 Jun; 17(2), p. 255-83.
EPub date: 2012-02-06.
PMID: 22309958
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The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) firefighter study: testing mediating mechanisms.
Authors: Ranby K.W. , MacKinnon D.P. , Fairchild A.J. , Elliot D.L. , Kuehl K.S. , Goldberg L. .
Source: Journal of occupational health psychology, 2011 Oct; 16(4), p. 501-13.
PMID: 21728433
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Long-term effects of a worksite health promotion program for firefighters.
Authors: MacKinnon D.P. , Elliot D.L. , Thoemmes F. , Kuehl K.S. , Moe E.L. , Goldberg L. , Burrell G.L. , Ranby K.W. .
Source: American journal of health behavior, 2010 Nov-Dec; 34(6), p. 695-706.
PMID: 20604695
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Social desirability trait influences on self-reported dietary measures among diverse participants in a multicenter multiple risk factor trial.
Authors: Hebert J.R. , Hurley T.G. , Peterson K.E. , Resnicow K. , Thompson F.E. , Yaroch A.L. , Ehlers M. , Midthune D. , Williams G.C. , Greene G.W. , et al. .
Source: The Journal of nutrition, 2008 Jan; 138(1), p. 226S-234S.
PMID: 18156429
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Accuracy and precision of two short screeners to assess change in fruit and vegetable consumption among diverse populations participating in health promotion intervention trials.
Authors: Peterson K.E. , Hebert J.R. , Hurley T.G. , Resnicow K. , Thompson F.E. , Greene G.W. , Shaikh A.R. , Yaroch A.L. , Williams G.C. , Salkeld J. , et al. .
Source: The Journal of nutrition, 2008 Jan; 138(1), p. 218S-225S.
PMID: 18156428
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Performance of a short percentage energy from fat tool in measuring change in dietary intervention studies.
Authors: Williams G.C. , Hurley T.G. , Thompson F.E. , Midthune D. , Yaroch A.L. , Resnicow K. , Toobert D.J. , Greene G.W. , Peterson K. , Nebeling L. , et al. .
Source: The Journal of nutrition, 2008 Jan; 138(1), p. 212S-217S.
PMID: 18156427
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Use of signal detection methodology to identify subgroups of dietary supplement use in diverse populations.
Authors: Davis R.E. , Resnicow K. , Atienza A.A. , Peterson K.E. , Domas A. , Hunt A. , Hurley T.G. , Yaroch A.L. , Greene G.W. , Goldman Sher T. , et al. .
Source: The Journal of nutrition, 2008 Jan; 138(1), p. 205S-211S.
PMID: 18156426
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Correspondence of the NCI Fruit and Vegetable Screener to repeat 24-H recalls and serum carotenoids in behavioral intervention trials.
Authors: Greene G.W. , Resnicow K. , Thompson F.E. , Peterson K.E. , Hurley T.G. , Hebert J.R. , Toobert D.J. , Williams G.C. , Elliot D.L. , Goldman Sher T. , et al. .
Source: The Journal of nutrition, 2008 Jan; 138(1), p. 200S-204S.
PMID: 18156425
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Evaluation of a short dietary assessment instrument for percentage energy from fat in an intervention study.
Authors: Thompson F.E. , Midthune D. , Williams G.C. , Yaroch A.L. , Hurley T.G. , Resnicow K. , Hebert J.R. , Toobert D.J. , Greene G.W. , Peterson K. , et al. .
Source: The Journal of nutrition, 2008 Jan; 138(1), p. 193S-199S.
PMID: 18156424
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Baseline design elements and sample characteristics for seven sites participating in the Nutrition Working Group of the Behavior Change Consortium.
Authors: Yaroch A.L. , Nebeling L. , Thompson F.E. , Hurley T.G. , Hebert J.R. , Toobert D.J. , Resnicow K. , Greene G.W. , Williams G.C. , Elliot D.L. , et al. .
Source: The Journal of nutrition, 2008 Jan; 138(1), p. 185S-192S.
PMID: 18156423
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The examination of two short dietary assessment methods, within the context of multiple behavioral change interventions in adult populations. Introduction.
Authors: Beresford S.A. , Klesges L.M. , Rockett H.R. .
Source: The Journal of nutrition, 2008 Jan; 138(1), p. 183S-184S.
PMID: 18156422
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A qualitative study of a nutrition working group.
Authors: Greene G.W. , Nebeling L.C. , Greaney M.L. , Lindsay A.C. , Hardwick C.K. , Toobert D.J. , Resnicow K. , Williams G.C. , Elliot D.L. , Goldman Sher T. , et al. .
Source: Health promotion practice, 2007 Jul; 8(3), p. 299-306.
EPub date: 2007-05-23.
PMID: 17522413
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The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) firefighter study: outcomes of two models of behavior change.
Authors: Elliot D.L. , Goldberg L. , Kuehl K.S. , Moe E.L. , Breger R.K. , Pickering M.A. .
Source: Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2007 Feb; 49(2), p. 204-13.
PMID: 17293760
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Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects (PHLAME).
Authors: Moe E.L. , Elliot D.L. , Goldberg L. , Kuehl K.S. , Stevens V.J. , Breger R.K. , DeFrancesco C.L. , Ernst D. , Duncan T. , Dulacki K. , et al. .
Source: Health education research, 2002 Oct; 17(5), p. 586-96.
PMID: 12408203
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