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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA080255-04 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Colby, Suzanne
Organization: Brown University
Project Title: Measuring Dependence and Withdrawal in Teen Smokers
Fiscal Year: 2001


DESCRIPTION: (Applicant's Description) Tobacco smoking by adolescents poses a major health threat, with 90% of adults having initiated smoking before the age of 18. Research with chronic adult smokers has demonstrated certain aversive effects of nicotine abstinence which have been implicated in maintenance of smoking among adults. Little is known about the characteristics, intensity, or relevance of nicotine withdrawal among adolescent smokers. The primary objective of this research is to measure the physiological and psychological characteristics of nicotine withdrawal among adolescent smokers and to assess the relevance of these measures in predicting subsequent difficulty quitting smoking. In the proposed study, adolescent smokers (ages 13-17) will be recruited from a primary care setting to participate in a 3-session experimental protocol designed to assess nicotine withdrawal under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Measures will include: a cognitive performance computerized test battery, negative affect and reactive irritability, smoking cue reactivity, and caloric intake. During session I, baseline assessments will be completed with no deprivation from nicotine. During session 2, assessments will be repeated after overnight abstinence from nicotine. In session 3, assessments will be re-administered after participants have resumed smoking at their baseline level. Immediately following session 3, a brief smoking intervention will be delivered. Follow-up assessments will occur in person at 3 and 6 months later, to measure smoking outcome. Measures of nicotine withdrawal effects (changes from session 1 to 2) and withdrawal relief effects (changes from session 2 to 3) will be evaluated and validated against: (1) baseline measures of tobacco use history, current intake levels, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit smoking; and (2) subsequent tobacco use and quit attempts at follow up. A pilot study is proposed for Year 1 of this application in order to determine the cognitive performance test battery components to use in the larger trial. This research will contribute the first: 1) assessment of withdrawal among adolescents that is not retrospective or subjective; 2) evaluation of objective withdrawal characteristics among abstaining adolescents under controlled conditions; and 3) prospective validation of withdrawal measures as they relate to subsequent smoking outcomes. Thus, it will provide a greater understanding of nicotine withdrawal as a maintaining factor of adolescent smoking, and thereby provide an empirical basis for enhancing smoking cessation approaches for youth.


Effects of abstinence in adolescent tobacco smokers: withdrawal symptoms, urge, affect, and cue reactivity.
Authors: Bidwell L.C. , Leventhal A.M. , Tidey J.W. , Brazil L. , Niaura R.S. , Colby S.M. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2013 Feb; 15(2), p. 457-64.
EPub date: 2012-09-04.
PMID: 22949582
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Smoking abstinence and reinstatement effects in adolescent cigarette smokers.
Authors: Colby S.M. , Leventhal A.M. , Brazil L. , Lewis-Esquerre J. , Stein L.A. , Rohsenow D.J. , Monti P.M. , Niaura R.S. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2010 Jan; 12(1), p. 19-28.
EPub date: 2009-11-23.
PMID: 19933776
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Validation of the timeline follow-back in the assessment of adolescent smoking.
Authors: Lewis-Esquerre J.M. , Colby S.M. , Tevyaw T.O. , Eaton C.A. , Kahler C.W. , Monti P.M. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2005 Jul; 79(1), p. 33-43.
PMID: 15943942
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Cue reactivity in adolescents: measurement of separate approach and avoidance reactions.
Authors: Curtin J.J. , Barnett N.P. , Colby S.M. , Rohsenow D.J. , Monti P.M. .
Source: Journal of studies on alcohol, 2005 May; 66(3), p. 332-43.
PMID: 16047522
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Adolescent alcohol misuse: methodological issues for enhancing treatment research.
Authors: Colby S.M. , Lee C.S. , Lewis-Esquerre J. , Esposito-Smythers C. , Monti P.M. .
Source: Addiction (Abingdon, England), 2004 Nov; 99 Suppl 2, p. 47-62.
PMID: 15488105
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Are adolescent smokers dependent on nicotine? A review of the evidence.
Authors: Colby S.M. , Tiffany S.T. , Shiffman S. , Niaura R.S. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2000-05-01; 59 Suppl 1, p. S83-95.
PMID: 10773439
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Measuring nicotine dependence among youth: a review of available approaches and instruments.
Authors: Colby S.M. , Tiffany S.T. , Shiffman S. , Niaura R.S. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2000-05-01; 59 Suppl 1, p. S23-39.
PMID: 10773436
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