Skip to main content

COVID-19 Resources

What people with cancer should know:

Guidance for cancer researchers:

Get the latest public health information from CDC:

Get the latest research information from NIH:

Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA073985-04 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Shapiro, Samuel
Organization: Boston University Medical Campus
Project Title: Hormonal Contraceptives and Invasive Cervical Cancer
Fiscal Year: 2000


DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract). Carcinoma of the cervix is a sexually-transmitted disease due to infection with specific oncogenic types of the HPV. Yet not all infected women develop cancer. It has been posited that injectable progestogen-only contraceptives (IPCs) and/or combined estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives (COCs) may act as cofactors, together with HPV, in the aetiology of cervical cancer. There is also some evidence to suggest that IPCs may reduce the risk. South Africa is an ideal country to test these hypotheses, because exposure to IPCs and COCs is common, as is invasive cervical cancer; screening is uncommon and biases associated with screening will be minimized. A four-year case-control study will be conducted in Cape Town, Africa, in which 500 cases of invasive cervical cancer (stages Ib-IVb) and 1500 controls admitted to the two main tertiary care hospitals will be enrolled. After giving written, informed consent, the controls will undergo Pap smears, and the cervical scrapings will also be tested for HPV infection. An estimated 500 controls, testing positive for HPV, will be compared with the cases for IPC and COC use. HPV-positive and negative controls will also be compared. Sera and white cells obtained from consenting cases and controls will be stored at -70 degrees C for the testing of future hypotheses. The study is designed to determine whether IPCs and COCs increase (or decrease) cervical cancer risk. An important source of confounding, sexual activity, will be controlled by confining the analysis to HPV-positive women. Independently of cervical cancer risk, the study is intended to determine whether IPCs and COCs predispose to HPV infection. The stored sera and white cells are intended to be available for future analysis related to the study hypotheses, and other hypotheses.


Determinants of sexual activity and its relation to cervical cancer risk among South African women.
Authors: Cooper D. , Hoffman M. , Carrara H. , Rosenberg L. , Kelly J. , Stander I. , Denny L. , Williamson A.L. , Shapiro S. .
Source: BMC public health, 2007-11-27; 7, p. 341.
EPub date: 2007-11-27.
PMID: 18042284
Related Citations

Papanicolaou smears induce partial immunity against sexually transmitted viral infections.
Authors: Shapiro S. , Hoffman M. , Constant D. , Rosenberg L. , Carrara H. , Allan B.R. , Marais D.J. , Passmore J.A. , Williamson A.L. .
Source: Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 2007 Nov; 18(6), p. 709-15.
PMID: 18049186
Related Citations

The agreement between cervical abnormalities identified by cytology and detection of high-risk types of human papillomavirus.
Authors: Allan B.R. , Marais D.J. , Denny L. , Hoffman M. , Shapiro S. , Williamson A.L. .
Source: South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde, 2006 Nov; 96(11), p. 1186-90.
PMID: 17167705
Related Citations

HIV and pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix in South Africa: a case-control study.
Authors: Moodley J.R. , Hoffman M. , Carrara H. , Allan B.R. , Cooper D.D. , Rosenberg L. , Denny L.E. , Shapiro S. , Williamson A.L. .
Source: BMC cancer, 2006-05-23; 6, p. 135.
EPub date: 2006-05-23.
PMID: 16719902
Related Citations

Hypothesis: the act of taking a Papanicolaou smear reduces the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection: a potential impact on the risk of cervical cancer.
Authors: Shapiro S. , Carrara H. , Allan B.R. , Hoffman M. , Rosenberg L. , Kelly J.P. , Cooper D.D. , Williamson A.L. .
Source: Cancer causes & control : CCC, 2003 Dec; 14(10), p. 953-7.
PMID: 14750534
Related Citations

Limited Pap screening associated with reduced risk of cervical cancer in South Africa.
Authors: Hoffman M. , Cooper D. , Carrara H. , Rosenberg L. , Kelly J. , Stander I. , Williamson A.L. , Denny L. , du Toit G. , Shapiro S. .
Source: International journal of epidemiology, 2003 Aug; 32(4), p. 573-7.
PMID: 12913031
Related Citations

Risk of invasive cancer of the cervix in relation to the use of injectable progestogen contraceptives and combined estrogen/progestogen oral contraceptives (South Africa).
Authors: Shapiro S. , Rosenberg L. , Hoffman M. , Kelly J.P. , Cooper D.D. , Carrara H. , Denny L.E. , du Toit G. , Allan B.R. , Stander I.A. , et al. .
Source: Cancer causes & control : CCC, 2003 Jun; 14(5), p. 485-95.
PMID: 12946044
Related Citations

Back to Top