Skip to main content
An official website of the United States government
Grant Details

Grant Number: 4R37CA249707-04 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Dunbar, Michael
Organization: Rand Corporation
Project Title: Predictors and Consequences of Nicotine and Cannabis Vaping CO-Use in Young Adults: a Longitudinal and Ema Analysis
Fiscal Year: 2024


Co-use of both tobacco and cannabis products is common among young adults (ages 18-24), and recent data suggest that rates of co-use may be rising in line with changes in regulatory and retail landscapes for these drugs (e.g., recreational cannabis legalization; the spread of “vape shops” nationwide). This is a serious public health problem, as individuals who engage in co-use –especially those who use tobacco and cannabis on the same use occasion (e.g., mixed together in the same delivery device)– may use both drugs more heavily and show poorer functional outcomes in domains such as mental health and physical ailments. Although the vast majority of studies on co-use to date have focused on combustible products, the rising popularity of electronic nicotine delivery systems and similar devices to “vape” nicotine and cannabis (hereafter, vaping products) has led to novel methods for co-using these drugs. This is concerning because although less risky to health than combustible products, vaping is not harm-free. Yet, little is known about daily patterns, correlates, and consequences of nicotine and cannabis vaping co-use in young people. The current study will address these substantial gaps in the knowledge base by 1) using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to assess daily patterns of nicotine and cannabis vaping and product co-use and 2) leveraging 13 years of annual survey data spanning early adolescence through emerging adulthood to examine predictors and consequences associated with young adults’ patterns of nicotine/cannabis vaping in daily life. We plan to recruit 240 participants from the ongoing, multi-wave STRATA cohort study of ~ 2,500 young people based primarily in California, for which annual data on substance use and other risk factors has been collected since 2008. We will use EMA administered via a smartphone application over a three-week period to assess daily patterns of nicotine/cannabis vaping, examine within- and across-day situational factors and functioning associated with nicotine/cannabis vaping. We will also link EMA data with longitudinal STRATA survey data to examine prospective associations between risk factors in adolescence and real-world (EMA) patterns of nicotine/cannabis vaping in young adulthood. Finally, we will compare findings for individuals who engage in co-use of both nicotine and cannabis vaping products (NV+CV; n=80) against those who vape nicotine only (NV; n=80) or cannabis only (CV; n=80) to explore how patterns, predictors, and consequences of co-use may differ from single-product use. Findings from this study will significantly improve the understanding of factors associated with nicotine and cannabis vaping in young adults and can inform regulatory efforts and the development of prevention/ intervention programs to mitigate potential harms associated with use of these novel drug delivery systems.


Examining indirect effects of advertising exposure on young adults' cannabis and nicotine vaping.
Authors: DiGuiseppi G.T. , Dunbar M.S. , Tucker J.S. , Rodriguez A. , Messan Setodji C. , Davis J.P. , D'Amico E.J. .
Source: Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 2023 Dec; 37(8), p. 996-1005.
EPub date: 2023-04-10.
PMID: 37036697
Related Citations

Parallel trajectories of vaping and smoking cannabis and their associations with mental and physical well-being among young adults.
Authors: Dunbar M.S. , Davis J.P. , Tucker J.S. , Seelam R. , Rodriguez A. , D'Amico E.J. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2023-10-01; 251, p. 110918.
EPub date: 2023-08-09.
PMID: 37611482
Related Citations

Back to Top