||5R01CA210259-06 Interpret this number
||Klein Buendel, Inc.
||Using Technology to Scale-Up an Occupational Sun Protection Policy Program
A key goal in the Affordable Care Act is building a national culture of prevention through workplace health and
safety initiatives. To achieve this goal, methods for scaling up evidence-based programs from research to wide-
scale dissemination are needed to help balance effectiveness and cost. In many cases, there are pressures to
reduce scale-up costs but at the expense of lower program implementation and effectiveness. A scale-up
method that sacrifices effectiveness but reduces costs and reaches a larger number of employers may be
acceptable. We will model the effectiveness and cost trade-off, along with the extent and representativeness of
reach, when scaling up our evidence-based occupational sun protection intervention, Sun Safe Workplaces
(SSW), for national distribution. The intervention, which relies on personal contact with managers and in-
person employee training (SSW-IP), created large improvements in comprehensive workplace sun safety (i.e.,
policy adoption and employee education) in a randomized controlled trial. We will compare the existing in-
person program delivery methods (SSW-IP) to a lower-cost dissemination method that utilizes Internet
technology (SSW-T), i.e., virtual meetings, social networking, online training, and program materials. The aims
of the research are to: 1) estimate the program reach (number and representativeness) and implementation
rates (i.e., adoption of policies and delivery of education on occupational sun protection) achieved by the SSW-
IP and SSW-T in a model of national distribution to public safety and public works industries; 2) estimate the
costs associated with the SSW-IP and SSW-T (i.e., intervention costs and induced employer costs) and compare
the estimated program benefits (i.e., policy and education) to cost; and 3) estimate the effect and cost-
effectiveness of SSW-IP and SSW-T in secondary outcomes of a) changes in workplace environments and
procedures for sun safety and b) workers’ sun safety practices. In a 5-year project, SSW-T will be created by
redesigning our very effective SSW-IP methods to use the latest web conferencing, social networking, and
online training technology for dissemination. The implementation rates (defined as policy adoption and
education delivery) and costs associated with SSW-IP (n=50 employers) and SSW-T (n=150 employers) will be
modeled in a randomized two-group pretest-posttest design, enrolling a national sample of 200 employers (i.e.,
firefighting departments and state departments of transportation). Unlike traditional randomized trials, the
primary analysis will be of cost effectiveness to test the hypothesis that SSW-T can be delivered cost-effectively
to an expanded group of worksites producing a lower implementation rate than SSW-IP but at substantially
lower cost. Secondary analyses will compare the two scale-up strategies on implementation rate, differences in
rate by employer groups (e.g., size and region), changes to workplace environment/procedures, and employee
sun safety practices. The findings will have high impact by helping public health practitioners select the best
strategy for scaling up evidence-based workplace health and safety programs to achieve this ACA goal.
Association of occupational sun safety policy and actions in state transportation sector in the United States.
, Walkosz B.J.
, Olivas S.
, Eye R.
, Liu X.
, Kinsey A.
, Buller M.K.
, Grayson A.
American journal of industrial medicine, 2021 04; 64(4), p. 274-282.
Design and baseline data of a randomized trial comparing two methods for scaling-up an occupational sun protection intervention.
, Buller M.K.
, Meenan R.
, Cutter G.R.
, Berteletti J.
, Eye R.
, Walkosz B.J.
, Pagoto S.
Contemporary clinical trials, 2020 10; 97, p. 106147.