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Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA228905-03 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Pokhrel, Pallav
Organization: University Of Hawaii At Manoa
Project Title: Social Processes of E-Cigarette Marketing's Influence on Behavior
Fiscal Year: 2020


ABSTRACT The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) provides the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to regulate e-cigarette (e-cig) marketing. The FDA specifically has the authority to restrict e-cig marketing that promotes e-cig/cigarette use among young people. Currently, the e-cig marketing is largely unregulated. This study’s goal is to generate evidence that the FDA can use to regulate e- cig marketing effectively. At present, little is known about the mechanisms of how e-cig marketing is related to young people’s e-cig and dual (e-cig and cigarette) use behavior. In particular, the social processes of e-cig marketing’s influence on behavior have been poorly understood. In the area of tobacco marketing research in general, extant findings are limited to the extent of showing that peer and family influence, vis-à-vis marketing, has independent and stronger effect on increased tobacco product use among young people. This has led the tobacco industry to argue that tobacco marketing’s influence on tobacco use initiation and maintenance is negligible compared with social influence. Scientific evidence showing that social processes are part of the mechanism of marketing’s influence on young adults’ e-cig/dual use would help the FDA argue in favor of strongly regulating e-cig marketing that targets young people. Social influence among young adults may occur through interactional social networks, comprised of individuals who interact with each other on a reular basis; and within a larger context of reputational groups or peer “crowds,” groups with subcultural underpinnings that are seen as collectives with shared lifestyle preferences and behaviors (e.g., Goth, Hipster, Hip Hop). The tobacco industry is long suspected of segmenting and targeting young adults based on peer crowds, although no empirical evidence currently exists showing that some peer crowds are actually more receptive to tobacco or e-cig marketing than others and as a result show higher tobacco or e-cig use behavior. Further, “vape- shops” (specialty shops for e-cig products) appear to utilize actual social networks and social media (e.g., Instagram, Facebook) to reach young people. This longitudinal study will collect 3 waves of data at 6-month intervals from multi-ethnic community (2-year) college students (N = 2000) in order to: 1) inform the FDA about peer crowds that are particularly receptive to e-cig marketing’s influence on behavior; and 2) generate the evidence that e-cig marketing influences young adults’ actual social network ties so as to result in increased e- cig and dual use. We will collect ego-centric social networks data, which will include data on network members’ ties to vape shops and their social media using habits. In summary, the high quality data we will generate will help the FDA 1) restrict e-cigarette marketing that targets vulnerable young adult peer crowds; 2) develop anti- e-cig social marketing campaigns for vulnerable peer crowds; and 3) restrict marketing that promotes social network ties conducive to e-cig/dual use.


Tests for confounding with cigarette smoking in the association of E-cigarette use with respiratory disorder: 2020 National-Sample Data.
Authors: Wills T.A. , Choi K. , Pokhrel P. , Pagano I. .
Source: Preventive medicine, 2022 08; 161, p. 107137.
EPub date: 2022-07-09.
PMID: 35820496
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Ethnicity and the mechanisms of point-of-sale e-cigarette marketing's influence on behavior: A longitudinal study.
Authors: Pokhrel P. , Phillips K.T. , Tam H. , Kawamoto C.T. , Nakama M. , Kaholokula J.K. .
Source: Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 2022 Aug; 36(5), p. 452-465.
EPub date: 2021-09-27.
PMID: 34570528
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Trajectories of e-cigarette advertising exposure, e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking in a sample of young adults from Hawaii.
Authors: Pokhrel P. , Kawamoto C.T. , Pagano I. , Herzog T.A. .
Source: Addiction (Abingdon, England), 2022 Jul; 117(7), p. 2015-2026.
EPub date: 2022-02-14.
PMID: 35072304
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Relationships Between Depressive Symptoms, Anxiety, Impulsivity and Cigarette and E-cigarette Use Among Young Adults.
Authors: Masaki K. , Taketa R.M. , Nakama M.K. , Kawamoto C.T. , Pokhrel P. .
Source: Hawai'i journal of health & social welfare, 2022 03; 81(3), p. 51-57.
PMID: 35261985
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The Effects of E-Cigarette Use on Alcohol and Marijuana Abuse Symptoms in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young Adults.
Authors: Pokhrel P. , Elwir T. , Mettias H. , Kawamoto C.T. , Oli N. , Okamoto S.K. .
Source: International journal of environmental research and public health, 2021-12-14; 18(24), .
EPub date: 2021-12-14.
PMID: 34948769
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Exposure to e-cigarette content on social media and e-cigarette use: An ecological momentary assessment study.
Authors: Pokhrel P. , Phillips K.T. , Kawamoto C.T. , Taketa R. , Tabangcura K.J. , Yoshioka-Maxwell A. , Pagano I. .
Source: Addictive behaviors reports, 2021 Dec; 14, p. 100368.
EPub date: 2021-07-09.
PMID: 34938829
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Correlates of tobacco use among Asian and Pacific Islander youth and young adults in the U.S.: A systematic review of the literature.
Authors: Phillips K.T. , Okamoto S.K. , Johnson D.L. , Rosario M.H. , Manglallan K.S. , Pokhrel P. .
Source: Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology, 2021 Oct; 29(5), p. 440-455.
PMID: 34636585
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Peer Crowd Identification of Young and Early Middle Adulthood Customers at Vape Shops.
Authors: Sussman S. , Galimov A. , Meza L. , Huh J. , Baezconde-Garbanati L. , Pokhrel P. .
Source: Journal of drug education, 2021 09; 50(3-4), p. 98-107.
EPub date: 2022-06-09.
PMID: 35678625
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Tobacco use among native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander youth in the U.S. and USAPI: a systematic review of the literature.
Authors: Rosario M.H. , Johnson D.L. , Manglallan K.S. , Phillips K.T. , Pokhrel P. , Okamoto S.K. .
Source: Journal of ethnicity in substance abuse, 2021-08-23; , p. 1-16.
EPub date: 2021-08-23.
PMID: 34424138
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Characterization of Electronic Cigarette Warning Statements Portrayed in YouTube Videos.
Authors: Jones D.M. , Guy M.C. , Soule E. , Sakuma K.K. , Pokhrel P. , Orloff M. , Trinidad D. , Smith D. , Browley S. , Walker A.P. , et al. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2021-08-04; 23(8), p. 1358-1366.
PMID: 33400781
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Body esteem, weight-control outcome expectancies, and e-cigarette use among young adults.
Authors: Pokhrel P. , Bennett B.L. , Boushey C.J. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2021-02-16; 23(3), p. 454-461.
PMID: 31927589
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Heat-not-burn Tobacco Products and the Increased Risk for Poly-tobacco Use.
Authors: Pokhrel P. , Herzog T.A. , Kawamoto C.T. , Fagan P. .
Source: American journal of health behavior, 2021-01-01; 45(1), p. 195-204.
PMID: 33402249
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Social media's influence on e-cigarette use onset and escalation among young adults: What beliefs mediate the effects?
Authors: Pokhrel P. , Ing C. , Kawamoto C.T. , Laestadius L. , Buente W. , Herzog T.A. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2021 01; 112, p. 106617.
EPub date: 2020-08-19.
PMID: 32911352
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Predictors of marijuana vaping onset and escalation among young adults.
Authors: Pokhrel P. , Fagan P. , Kawamoto C.T. , Okamoto S.K. , Herzog T.A. .
Source: Drug and alcohol dependence, 2020-11-01; 216, p. 108320.
EPub date: 2020-09-25.
PMID: 33039921
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Physical Activity and Use of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes Among Young Adults.
Authors: Pokhrel P. , Schmid S. , Pagano I. .
Source: American journal of preventive medicine, 2020 04; 58(4), p. 580-583.
EPub date: 2019-12-19.
PMID: 31866208
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From Apple to Werewolf: A content analysis of marketing for e-liquids on Instagram.
Authors: Laestadius L.I. , Wahl M.M. , Pokhrel P. , Cho Y.I. .
Source: Addictive behaviors, 2019 04; 91, p. 119-127.
EPub date: 2018-09-09.
PMID: 30253933
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E-cigarette Advertising Exposure, Explicit and Implicit Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use Susceptibility Among Nonsmoking Young Adults.
Authors: Pokhrel P. , Herzog T.A. , Fagan P. , Unger J.B. , Stacy A.W. .
Source: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 2019-01-01; 21(1), p. 127-131.
PMID: 29444275
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