|Grant Number:||5R01CA140216-04 Interpret this number|
|Primary Investigator:||Rubinstein, Mark|
|Organization:||University Of California, San Francisco|
|Project Title:||Nicotine Metabolism and the Development of Addiction in Adolescent Light Smokers|
Project Summary Studies have shown that adult smokers with the presence of certain genetic markers associated with slower nicotine metabolism smoke fewer cigarettes and are more likely to quit. Although it seems likely that nicotine metabolism affects the degree of nicotine dependence in smokers, the impact on the development of nicotine dependence is less clear. Since addiction most frequently occurs during adolescence, prospective studies that focus on smoking during this time period are essential to give us information on the effects of nicotine metabolism on the progression to addiction. Objective: To ascertain whether the rate of nicotine metabolism affects adolescents' susceptibility to nicotine addiction. Specific aims: We will examine the association between the rate of nicotine metabolism and cigarette consumption over time in a prospective cohort of adolescent early/experimental smokers (Aim 1). We will also examine the association between the rate of nicotine metabolism and the development of addiction in adolescent early/experimental smokers (Aim 2). Study design: Using a prospective cohort design, we will examine the influence of the rate of nicotine metabolism (measured by the 3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio) on the development of nicotine addiction in adolescent early/experimental smokers (13-16 years-old who smoke 1-14 cigarettes per week). At baseline, smoking behavior and addiction questionnaires will be administered and saliva samples will be obtained for determination of nicotine metabolic rate. All subjects will then be seen at 6 month intervals up to 36 months. Addiction will be measured by increasing salivary cotinine levels reflecting increased intake and the development of nicotine addiction signs and symptoms using standardized scales. Significance: The proposed research is critical to understanding why and how some adolescent smokers make the transition from experimentation to addicted smoker. Although only a small percentage of teens smoke cigarettes, we know that those who continue smoking into adulthood are more likely to smoke heavily, less likely to quit and given the cumulative effect of smoking related toxins, are at increased risk for developing negative outcomes from smoking. Therefore, intervening early among adolescent smokers is essential to halt the devastating effects from smoking. Moreover, as studies of adult smokers have suggested that response to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation may be influenced by a smoker's individual rate of nicotine metabolism, the metabolic rate may prove equally useful when choosing specific forms of nicotine replacement for adolescents. Therefore, research into the effect of nicotine metabolism on adolescent smokers may provide new and important insights into which teens may benefit from nicotine replacement and which may be more likely to benefit from non-nicotine pharmacotherapy or non- pharmacologic interventions.
Smoking-related Cue-induced Brain Activation In Adolescent Light Smokers
Authors: Rubinstein M.L. , Luks T.L. , Moscicki A.B. , Dryden W. , Rait M.A. , Simpson G.V. .
Source: The Journal Of Adolescent Health : Official Publication Of The Society For Adolescent Medicine, 2011 Jan; 48(1), p. 7-12.
Adolescent Smokers Show Decreased Brain Responses To Pleasurable Food Images Compared With Nonsmokers
Authors: Rubinstein M.L. , Luks T.L. , Dryden W.Y. , Rait M.A. , Simpson G.V. .
Source: Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal Of The Society For Research On Nicotine And Tobacco, 2011 Aug; 13(8), p. 751-5.
Nicotine Metabolism And Addiction Among Adolescent Smokers
Authors: Rubinstein M.L. , Shiffman S. , Moscicki A.B. , Rait M.A. , Sen S. , Benowitz N.L. .
Source: Addiction (abingdon, England), 2013 Feb; 108(2), p. 406-12.
Race, Gender, And Nicotine Metabolism In Adolescent Smokers
Authors: Rubinstein M.L. , Shiffman S. , Rait M.A. , Benowitz N.L. .
Source: Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal Of The Society For Research On Nicotine And Tobacco, 2013 Jul; 15(7), p. 1311-5.
Characteristics Of Adolescent Intermittent And Daily Smokers
Authors: Rubinstein M.L. , Rait M.A. , Sen S. , Shiffman S. .
Source: Addictive Behaviors, 2014 Sep; 39(9), p. 1337-41.
Frequent Marijuana Use Is Associated With Greater Nicotine Addiction In Adolescent Smokers
Authors: Rubinstein M.L. , Rait M.A. , Prochaska J.J. .
Source: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 2014-08-01 00:00:00.0; 141, p. 159-62.
Exploration Of The Effect Of Tobacco Smoking On Metabolic Measures In Young People Living With Hiv
Authors: Rubinstein M.L. , Harris D.R. , Rudy B.J. , Kapogiannis B.G. , Aldrovandi G.M. , Mulligan K. .
Source: Aids Research And Treatment, 2014; 2014, p. 740545.
Reporting Of Cigar Use Among Adolescent Tobacco Smokers
Authors: Rait M.A. , Prochaska J.J. , Rubinstein M.L. .
Source: Addictive Behaviors, 2016 Feb; 53, p. 206-9.