|Grant Number:||4R01CA100362-08 Interpret this number|
|Primary Investigator:||Fong, Geoffrey|
|Organization:||University Of Waterloo|
|Project Title:||International Tobacco Policy Survey|
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This application seeks to renew funding for the ITC Four Country Survey for five additional years. The objective of the ITC Four Country Survey is to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioural effects of national-level tobacco control policies and to understand the commonality and differences of policy effects in four countries - United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia. In a prospective cohort design, the participants are 1,500 adult smokers in each country who respond to a 45-minute telephone survey every year for five additional years. The ITC Four Country Survey is the core survey of the global ITC Project, which is conducting parallel cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers in 17 countries, inhabited by over half of the world's smokers. The ITC Project is the only international comparative cohort survey of tobacco users, and its focus on evaluating the impact of policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first- ever global health treaty, has placed the ITC Project at a unique and central position in providing the evidence base for the FCTC, which in turn has provided guidance to many countries regarding the implementation of strong evidence-based policies. The ITC survey includes measures of smoking behaviour, psychosocial predictors of smoking and quitting, and policy-relevant measures in five major policy domains (1) enhancement of warning labels, (2) elimination or restriction of the terms "light" or "mild" cigarette brand descriptors, (3) elimination or restrictions on advertising and promotion of tobacco products, (4) changes in price and taxation, and (5) smoke-free laws. The quasi-experimental design includes both between-country controls and within- country controls, thus allowing rigorous tests of national-level policies. There are 8 specific aims, which will be addressed by ITC Project: (1) examine whether a policy introduced in one country will affect self-reported smoking behaviour, in comparison to other countries where that policy is not changing, (2) examine whether a policy introduced in one country will enhance policy-relevant psychosocial variables in comparison to other countries where that policy is not changing, (3) examine whether a policy introduced in one country will lead to favourable changes in psychosocial variables known to be related to smoking and quitting behaviour, in comparison to other countries where that policy is not changing, (4) examine whether the effects of tobacco control policies may be offset by compensatory behaviours (e.g., price increases leading to shifts toward discount brands rather than to quitting, (5) examine whether the effects of tobacco control policies are moderated by situational and individual-difference factors, (6) identify the psychosocial mechanisms that may explain how tobacco control policies achieve (or fail to achieve) their goals, (7) identify similarities and differences in the factors that relate to smoking and cessation, and (8) evaluate the impact of the potentially forthcoming FDA regulation of tobacco in the U.S. This project has considerable time urgency as the FCTC has progressed into the implementation phase and FDA regulatory changes may occur soon. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This project evaluates the relative effectiveness of national level public health policies related to tobacco control across four countries. National policies have the ability to effectively improve public health by encouraging healthy behaviors or discouraging unhealthy behaviors. Comparisons made between countries with different policy environments, or within countries over time, will illustrate the effectiveness of specific policies in reducing tobacco consumption, providing public health officials with evidence to make informed decisions.
The impact of televised tobacco control advertising content on campaign recall: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United Kingdom Survey.
Authors: Richardson S, McNeill A, Langley TE, Sims M, Gilmore A, Szatkowski L, Heath R, Fong GT, Lewis S
Source: BMC Public Health, 2014 May 7;14, p. 432.
EPub date: 2014 May 7.
The predictive utility of micro indicators of concern about smoking: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country study.
Authors: Partos TR, Borland R, Thrasher JF, Li L, Yong HH, O'Connor RJ, Siahpush M
Source: Addict Behav, 2014 Aug;39(8), p. 1235-42.
EPub date: 2014 Apr 12.
Time perspective as a determinant of smoking cessation in four countries: Direct and mediated effects from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) 4-Country Surveys.
Authors: Hall PA, Fong GT, Meng G
Source: Addict Behav, 2014 Jul;39(7), p. 1183-90.
EPub date: 2014 Mar 26.
SMOKERS' STRATEGIC RESPONSES TO SIN TAXES: EVIDENCE FROM PANEL DATA IN THAILAND.
Authors: White JS, Ross H
Source: Health Econ, 2013 Oct 16;null, p. null.
EPub date: 2013 Oct 16.
Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from U.S. smokers in 2009: results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort.
Authors: Caruso RV, O'Connor RJ, Stephens WE, Cummings KM, Fong GT
Source: Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2013 Dec 20;11(1), p. 202-17.
EPub date: 2013 Dec 20.
Cigarette smokers' use of unconventional tobacco products and associations with quitting activity: findings from the ITC-4 U.S. cohort.
Authors: Kasza KA, Bansal-Travers M, O'Connor RJ, Compton WM, Kettermann A, Borek N, Fong GT, Cummings KM, Hyland AJ
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2014 Jun;16(6), p. 672-81.
EPub date: 2013 Dec 27.
Changes in effectiveness of cigarette health warnings over time in Canada and the United States, 2002-2011.
Authors: Hitchman SC, Driezen P, Logel C, Hammond D, Fong GT
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2014 May;16(5), p. 536-43.
EPub date: 2013 Dec 9.
Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.
Authors: Guindon GE, Driezen P, Chaloupka FJ, Fong GT
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23 Suppl 1, p. i13-22.
EPub date: 2013 Nov 13.
Cigarette graphic warning labels and smoking prevalence in Canada: a critical examination and reformulation of the FDA regulatory impact analysis.
Authors: Huang J, Chaloupka FJ, Fong GT
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23 Suppl 1, p. i7-12.
EPub date: 2013 Nov 11.
Heaviness of smoking predicts smoking relapse only in the first weeks of a quit attempt: findings from the international tobacco control four-country survey.
Authors: Yong HH, Borland R, Balmford J, Hyland A, O'Connor RJ, Thompson ME, Spittal MJ
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2014 Apr;16(4), p. 423-9.
EPub date: 2013 Oct 24.
The price sensitivity of cigarette consumption in Bangladesh: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) Surveys.
Authors: Nargis N, Ruthbah UH, Hussain AK, Fong GT, Huq I, Ashiquzzaman SM
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23 Suppl 1, p. i39-47.
EPub date: 2013 Oct 8.
Trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands: findings from the ITC US Surveys (2002-2011).
Authors: Cornelius ME, Driezen P, Fong GT, Chaloupka FJ, Hyland A, Bansal-Travers M, Carpenter MJ, Cummings KM
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23 Suppl 1, p. i48-53.
EPub date: 2013 Oct 3.
Cigarette brand loyalty in Australia: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.
Authors: Cowie GA, Swift E, Borland R, Chaloupka FJ, Fong GT
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23 Suppl 1, p. i73-9.
EPub date: 2013 Sep 27.
The choice of discount brand cigarettes: a comparative analysis of International Tobacco Control surveys in Canada and the USA (2002-2005).
Authors: Nargis N, Fong GT, Chaloupka FJ, Li Q
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23 Suppl 1, p. i86-96.
EPub date: 2013 Aug 28.
A novel approach to estimating the prevalence of untaxed cigarettes in the USA: findings from the 2009 and 2010 international tobacco control surveys.
Authors: Fix BV, Hyland A, O'Connor RJ, Cummings KM, Fong GT, Chaloupka FJ, Licht AS
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23 Suppl 1, p. i61-6.
EPub date: 2013 Aug 22.
The distribution of cigarette prices under different tax structures: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.
Authors: Shang C, Chaloupka FJ, Zahra N, Fong GT
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23 Suppl 1, p. i23-9.
EPub date: 2013 Jun 21.