|Grant Number:||4R01CA100362-08 Interpret this number|
|Primary Investigator:||Fong, Geoffrey|
|Organization:||University Of Waterloo|
|Project Title:||International Tobacco Policy Survey|
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This application seeks to renew funding for the ITC Four Country Survey for five additional years. The objective of the ITC Four Country Survey is to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioural effects of national-level tobacco control policies and to understand the commonality and differences of policy effects in four countries - United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia. In a prospective cohort design, the participants are 1,500 adult smokers in each country who respond to a 45-minute telephone survey every year for five additional years. The ITC Four Country Survey is the core survey of the global ITC Project, which is conducting parallel cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers in 17 countries, inhabited by over half of the world's smokers. The ITC Project is the only international comparative cohort survey of tobacco users, and its focus on evaluating the impact of policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first- ever global health treaty, has placed the ITC Project at a unique and central position in providing the evidence base for the FCTC, which in turn has provided guidance to many countries regarding the implementation of strong evidence-based policies. The ITC survey includes measures of smoking behaviour, psychosocial predictors of smoking and quitting, and policy-relevant measures in five major policy domains (1) enhancement of warning labels, (2) elimination or restriction of the terms "light" or "mild" cigarette brand descriptors, (3) elimination or restrictions on advertising and promotion of tobacco products, (4) changes in price and taxation, and (5) smoke-free laws. The quasi-experimental design includes both between-country controls and within- country controls, thus allowing rigorous tests of national-level policies. There are 8 specific aims, which will be addressed by ITC Project: (1) examine whether a policy introduced in one country will affect self-reported smoking behaviour, in comparison to other countries where that policy is not changing, (2) examine whether a policy introduced in one country will enhance policy-relevant psychosocial variables in comparison to other countries where that policy is not changing, (3) examine whether a policy introduced in one country will lead to favourable changes in psychosocial variables known to be related to smoking and quitting behaviour, in comparison to other countries where that policy is not changing, (4) examine whether the effects of tobacco control policies may be offset by compensatory behaviours (e.g., price increases leading to shifts toward discount brands rather than to quitting, (5) examine whether the effects of tobacco control policies are moderated by situational and individual-difference factors, (6) identify the psychosocial mechanisms that may explain how tobacco control policies achieve (or fail to achieve) their goals, (7) identify similarities and differences in the factors that relate to smoking and cessation, and (8) evaluate the impact of the potentially forthcoming FDA regulation of tobacco in the U.S. This project has considerable time urgency as the FCTC has progressed into the implementation phase and FDA regulatory changes may occur soon. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This project evaluates the relative effectiveness of national level public health policies related to tobacco control across four countries. National policies have the ability to effectively improve public health by encouraging healthy behaviors or discouraging unhealthy behaviors. Comparisons made between countries with different policy environments, or within countries over time, will illustrate the effectiveness of specific policies in reducing tobacco consumption, providing public health officials with evidence to make informed decisions.
Longer term impact of cigarette package warnings in Australia compared with the United Kingdom and Canada.
Authors: Li L, Borland R, Yong H, Cummings KM, Thrasher JF, Hitchman SC, Fong GT, Hammond D, Bansal-Travers M
Source: Health Educ Res, 2015 Feb;30(1), p. 67-80.
EPub date: 2014 Dec 8.
Use of stop-smoking medications in the United States before and after the introduction of varenicline.
Authors: Kasza KA, Cummings KM, Carpenter MJ, Cornelius ME, Hyland AJ, Fong GT
Source: Addiction, 2015 Feb;110(2), p. 346-55.
EPub date: 2014 Nov 20.
Socioeconomic status and smokers' number of smoking friends: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.
Authors: Hitchman SC, Fong GT, Zanna MP, Thrasher JF, Chung-Hall J, Siahpush M
Source: Drug Alcohol Depend, 2014 Oct 1;143, p. 158-66.
EPub date: 2014 Jul 26.
Reported planning before and after quitting and quit success: retrospective data from the ITC 4-Country Survey.
Authors: Balmford J, Swift E, Borland R
Source: Psychol Addict Behav, 2014 Sep;28(3), p. 899-906.
EPub date: 2014 Aug 18.
Switching between menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes: findings from the u.s. Cohort of the international tobacco control four country survey.
Authors: Kasza KA, Hyland AJ, Bansal-Travers M, Vogl LM, Chen J, Evans SE, Fong GT, Cummings KM, O'Connor RJ
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2014 Sep;16(9), p. 1255-65.
EPub date: 2014 Jun 30.
Mediational pathways of the impact of cigarette warning labels on quit attempts.
Authors: Yong HH, Borland R, Thrasher JF, Thompson ME, Nagelhout GE, Fong GT, Hammond D, Cummings KM
Source: Health Psychol, 2014 Nov;33(11), p. 1410-20.
EPub date: 2014 Jun 30.
The impact of televised tobacco control advertising content on campaign recall: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United Kingdom Survey.
Authors: Richardson S, McNeill A, Langley TE, Sims M, Gilmore A, Szatkowski L, Heath R, Fong GT, Lewis S
Source: BMC Public Health, 2014 May 7;14, p. 432.
EPub date: 2014 May 7.
The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.
Authors: Hitchman SC, Fong GT, Zanna MP, Thrasher JF, Laux FL
Source: Psychol Addict Behav, 2014 Dec;28(4), p. 1144-52.
EPub date: 2014 May 19.
The predictive utility of micro indicators of concern about smoking: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country study.
Authors: Partos TR, Borland R, Thrasher JF, Li L, Yong HH, O'Connor RJ, Siahpush M
Source: Addict Behav, 2014 Aug;39(8), p. 1235-42.
EPub date: 2014 Apr 12.
Time perspective as a determinant of smoking cessation in four countries: Direct and mediated effects from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) 4-Country Surveys.
Authors: Hall PA, Fong GT, Meng G
Source: Addict Behav, 2014 Jul;39(7), p. 1183-90.
EPub date: 2014 Mar 26.
Smokers' strategic responses to sin taxes: evidence from panel data in Thailand.
Authors: White JS, Ross H
Source: Health Econ, 2015 Feb;24(2), p. 127-41.
EPub date: 2013 Oct 16.
Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from U.S. smokers in 2009: results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort.
Authors: Caruso RV, O'Connor RJ, Stephens WE, Cummings KM, Fong GT
Source: Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2013 Dec 20;11(1), p. 202-17.
EPub date: 2013 Dec 20.
Cigarette smokers' use of unconventional tobacco products and associations with quitting activity: findings from the ITC-4 U.S. cohort.
Authors: Kasza KA, Bansal-Travers M, O'Connor RJ, Compton WM, Kettermann A, Borek N, Fong GT, Cummings KM, Hyland AJ
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2014 Jun;16(6), p. 672-81.
EPub date: 2013 Dec 27.
Changes in effectiveness of cigarette health warnings over time in Canada and the United States, 2002-2011.
Authors: Hitchman SC, Driezen P, Logel C, Hammond D, Fong GT
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2014 May;16(5), p. 536-43.
EPub date: 2013 Dec 9.
Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.
Authors: Guindon GE, Driezen P, Chaloupka FJ, Fong GT
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23 Suppl 1, p. i13-22.
EPub date: 2013 Nov 13.
Cigarette graphic warning labels and smoking prevalence in Canada: a critical examination and reformulation of the FDA regulatory impact analysis.
Authors: Huang J, Chaloupka FJ, Fong GT
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23 Suppl 1, p. i7-12.
EPub date: 2013 Nov 11.
Heaviness of smoking predicts smoking relapse only in the first weeks of a quit attempt: findings from the international tobacco control four-country survey.
Authors: Yong HH, Borland R, Balmford J, Hyland A, O'Connor RJ, Thompson ME, Spittal MJ
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2014 Apr;16(4), p. 423-9.
EPub date: 2013 Oct 24.