Skip Navigation
Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA165937-02 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Silverberg, Michael
Organization: Kaiser Foundation Research Institute
Project Title: Antiretroviral Therapy Strategies to Lower Cancer Risk in HIV-Infected Persons
Fiscal Year: 2013
Back to top


Abstract

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): "When to start" antiretroviral therapy (ART) and "what to start" represent key ongoing issues in HIV care. While these questions have been asked for the outcomes of AIDS and all-cause mortality, they now need to be extended to other serious outcomes, including cancer, which has endured as a major cause of morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected patients. The overarching goal of the current proposal is to formulate evidence-based recommendations about the preferred CD4 T-cell count at which to initiate ART, and the preferred initial ART regimen, that would minimize cancer incidence among HIV-infected persons. We will conduct this research within the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD), which includes 22 diverse HIV cohorts in the U.S. and Canada with more than 100,000 HIV-infected patients, validated cancer diagnoses, and up to 15 years of follow-up. We will focus on three cancer groups as primary outcomes: AIDS- defining cancers, virus-related non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC), and virus-unrelated NADC. We propose these grouped primary endpoints because their large Ns provide good statistical power and because clinical decisions about when and what to start might be based more on effects on cancer incidence for aggregated related cancers than on effects on incidence of individual cancer types. We also will consider 14 specific cancer types/groups as secondary outcomes. We propose to achieve two complementary and interrelated specific aims. The first aim will use a restricted sample of NA-ACCORD to emulate randomized controlled trials of ART for reducing cancer risk using causal statistical methodologies. This aim will evaluate the effect of the timing and composition of the initial ART regimen on the incidence of our primary and secondary cancer outcomes and includes two sub-aims: Aim 1a will evaluate whether initiation of ART at higher CD4 thresholds is associated with reduced incidence compared with initiation of ART at lower CD4 thresholds; Aim 1b will determine whether cancer incidence varies for the major ART classes and more common individual ART medications. The second aim will use the entire NA-ACCORD sample to elucidate the underlying relationships between patterns of immune suppression, HIV virus replication and incidence of our primary and secondary cancer outcomes and also has two sub-aims: Aim 2a will examine relationships between cancer risk and cumulative and current CD4 count and HIV RNA; Aim 2b will evaluate whether ART use, specific ART classes, or more common individual ART medications have an effect on cancer risk independent of the effect mediated by measures of CD4 count and HIV RNA found to be key predictors of cancer risk in Aim 2a. NA-ACCORD provides an ideal platform for conducting this study, with its diverse cohorts, large sample size, validated cancer diagnoses, longitudinal data on CD4 count, HIV RNA, and ART use, data on traditional cancer risk factors, efficient structure for harmonization of data, and high level of multidisciplinary expertise of collaborating investigators.

Back to top


Publications

Impact of age on retention in care and viral suppression.
Authors: Yehia BR, Rebeiro P, Althoff KN, Agwu AL, Horberg MA, Samji H, Napravnik S, Mayer K, Tedaldi E, Silverberg MJ, Thorne JE, Burchell AN, Rourke SB, Rachlis A, Mayor A, Gill MJ, Zinski A, Ohl M, Anastos K, Abraham AG, Kitahata MM, Moore RD, Gebo KA, North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD)
Source: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2015 Apr 1;68(4), p. 413-9.
PMID: 25559604
Related Citations

Back to top


End-stage renal disease among HIV-infected adults in North America.
Authors: Abraham AG, Althoff KN, Jing Y, Estrella MM, Kitahata MM, Wester CW, Bosch RJ, Crane H, Eron J, Gill MJ, Horberg MA, Justice AC, Klein M, Mayor AM, Moore RD, Palella FJ, Parikh CR, Silverberg MJ, Golub ET, Jacobson LP, Napravnik S, Lucas GM, North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA)
Source: Clin Infect Dis, 2015 Mar 15;60(6), p. 941-9.
EPub date: 2014 Nov 18.
PMID: 25409471
Related Citations

Back to top


Strong agreement of nationally recommended retention measures from the Institute of Medicine and Department of Health and Human Services.
Authors: Rebeiro PF, Horberg MA, Gange SJ, Gebo KA, Yehia BR, Brooks JT, Buchacz K, Silverberg MJ, Gill J, Moore RD, Althoff KN, North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD)
Source: PLoS One, 2014;9(11), p. e111772.
EPub date: 2014 Nov 6.
PMID: 25375099
Related Citations

Back to top


Incidence and risk factors of HPV-related and HPV-unrelated Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals.
Authors: Beachler DC, Abraham AG, Silverberg MJ, Jing Y, Fakhry C, Gill MJ, Dubrow R, Kitahata MM, Klein MB, Burchell AN, Korthuis PT, Moore RD, D'Souza G, North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) of IeDEA
Source: Oral Oncol, 2014 Dec;50(12), p. 1169-76.
EPub date: 2014 Oct 6.
PMID: 25301563
Related Citations

Back to top


Non-AIDS-Defining Malignancies in the HIV-Infected Population.
Authors: Wang CC, Silverberg MJ, Abrams DI
Source: Curr Infect Dis Rep, 2014 Jun;16(6), p. 406.
PMID: 24844467
Related Citations

Back to top


Prostate cancer incidence and prostate-specific antigen testing among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men.
Authors: Marcus JL, Chao CR, Leyden WA, Xu L, Klein DB, Horberg MA, Towner WJ, Quesenberry CP Jr, Abrams DI, Van Den Eeden SK, Silverberg MJ
Source: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2014 Aug 15;66(5), p. 495-502.
PMID: 24820107
Related Citations

Back to top


Disparities in the quality of HIV care when using US Department of Health and Human Services indicators.
Authors: Althoff KN, Rebeiro P, Brooks JT, Buchacz K, Gebo K, Martin J, Hogg R, Thorne JE, Klein M, Gill MJ, Sterling TR, Yehia B, Silverberg MJ, Crane H, Justice AC, Gange SJ, Moore R, Kitahata MM, Horberg MA, North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD)
Source: Clin Infect Dis, 2014 Apr;58(8), p. 1185-9.
EPub date: 2014 Jan 23.
PMID: 24463281
Related Citations

Back to top


Factors contributing to risk for cancer among HIV-infected individuals, and evidence that earlier combination antiretroviral therapy will alter this risk.
Authors: Borges AH, Dubrow R, Silverberg MJ
Source: Curr Opin HIV AIDS, 2014 Jan;9(1), p. 34-40.
PMID: 24225382
Related Citations

Back to top