|Grant Number:||5R01CA141661-04 Interpret this number|
|Primary Investigator:||Ling, Pamela|
|Organization:||University Of California, San Francisco|
|Project Title:||Understanding Smokeless Tobacco Marketing|
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In the past two years, the major US cigarette companies acquired smokeless tobacco companies and they are rapidly increasing both the intensity and targets of smokeless marketing, which may dramatically expand smokeless tobacco use. Most significant, new smokeless products are marketed as line extensions of major cigarette brands (Marlboro and Camel) to promote "dual use": smoking cigarettes when possible and using smokeless products where smoking is prohibited. These changes in smokeless tobacco marketing may blunt the effects of smokefree environments and the health benefits of smokers cutting down and quitting. Marketing efforts directly impact who is most likely to increase smokeless tobacco use, so it is critical to understand who the current and new targets of smokeless tobacco marketing are, and the impact of marketing activities on patterns of use, including impact on cigarette smoking. We propose to understand the design and effects of smokeless tobacco marketing based on a unique series of analyses of complementary data sources, including previously secret tobacco industry documents containing industry marketing research and plans, and content analyses of current smokeless tobacco advertising. We will then apply what we learn to develop and test new counter-marketing messages to block initiation of smokeless tobacco use among novices and the dual use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes as an alternative to smoking cessation. Marketing insights from previously secret industry documents are a valuable and untapped source of information that has not yet been used to guide the development of smokeless tobacco interventions. We have previously used the documents to develop interventions for young adult smokers. Specific aims of the proposal are: (1) Using previously secret tobacco industry documents, describe (a) the major factors impacting cigarette companies' decisions to enter the smokeless tobacco market, (b) consumer research on smokeless tobacco users and how this research led to the development of targeted marketing messages, and (c) how tobacco companies evaluated the effects of marketing activities on patterns of tobacco use, particularly smokeless initiation, dual use of smokeless and other tobacco products, and smoking cessation; (2) Develop advertising coding instruments based on insights from industry documents, and use these instruments to analyze current smokeless tobacco marketing messages and strategies; (3) Develop and test counter-marketing messages to decrease smokeless tobacco uptake among new users, and to discourage smokers from dual use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes. Because smokers are one of the key targets of new smokeless marketing efforts, countering these efforts is important to reduce the health consequences of both smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Findings will be relevant to guide development of policies on smokeless marketing and advertising and creation of the first public health interventions to block the tobacco industry's efforts to expand this new smokeless market before it becomes firmly established.
Dual use of smokeless tobacco or e-cigarettes with cigarettes and cessation.
Authors: Kalkhoran S, Grana RA, Neilands TB, Ling PM
Source: Am J Health Behav, 2015 Mar;39(2), p. 277-84.
The importance of product definitions in US e-cigarette laws and regulations.
Authors: Lempert LK, Grana R, Glantz SA
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Dec 14;null, p. null.
EPub date: 2014 Dec 14.
Tobacco industry use of flavours to recruit new users of little cigars and cigarillos.
Authors: Kostygina G, Glantz SA, Ling PM
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Oct 29;null, p. null.
EPub date: 2014 Oct 29.
Nonsmokers' responses to new warning labels on smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes: an experimental study.
Authors: Popova L, Ling PM
Source: BMC Public Health, 2014 Sep 25;14, p. 997.
EPub date: 2014 Sep 25.
Electronic cigarettes. Cardiology patient page.
Authors: Grana RA, Ling PM, Benowitz N, Glantz S
Source: Circulation, 2014 May 13;129(19), p. e490-2.
Dual tobacco user subtypes in the U.S. Air Force: dependence, attitudes, and other correlates of use.
Authors: Kram Y, Klesges RC, Ebbert JO, Talcott W, Neilands TB, Ling PM
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2014 Sep;16(9), p. 1216-23.
EPub date: 2014 Apr 10.
A longitudinal analysis of electronic cigarette use and smoking cessation.
Authors: Grana RA, Popova L, Ling PM
Source: JAMA Intern Med, 2014 May;174(5), p. 812-3.
"Smoking revolution": a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites.
Authors: Grana RA, Ling PM
Source: Am J Prev Med, 2014 Apr;46(4), p. 395-403.
A qualitative study of smokers' responses to messages discouraging dual tobacco product use.
Authors: Popova L, Kostygina G, Sheon NM, Ling PM
Source: Health Educ Res, 2014 Apr;29(2), p. 206-21.
EPub date: 2014 Jan 17.
Scaring the snus out of smokers: testing effects of fear, threat, and efficacy on smokers' acceptance of novel smokeless tobacco products.
Authors: Popova L
Source: Health Commun, 2014;29(9), p. 924-36.
EPub date: 2013 Dec 20.
Perceptions of relative risk of snus and cigarettes among US smokers.
Authors: Popova L, Ling PM
Source: Am J Public Health, 2013 Nov;103(11), p. e21-3.
EPub date: 2013 Sep 12.
Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation: a national study.
Authors: Popova L, Ling PM
Source: Am J Public Health, 2013 May;103(5), p. 923-30.
EPub date: 2013 Mar 14.
Testing messages to reduce smokers' openness to using novel smokeless tobacco products.
Authors: Popova L, Neilands TB, Ling PM
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Jul;23(4), p. 313-21.
EPub date: 2013 Mar 6.
A content analysis of smokeless tobacco coverage in U.S. newspapers and news wires.
Authors: Wackowski OA, Lewis MJ, Delnevo CD, Ling PM
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2013 Jul;15(7), p. 1289-96.
EPub date: 2013 Jan 3.
Examining market trends in the United States smokeless tobacco use: 2005-2011.
Authors: Delnevo CD, Wackowski OA, Giovenco DP, Manderski MT, Hrywna M, Ling PM
Source: Tob Control, 2014 Mar;23(2), p. 107-12.
EPub date: 2012 Oct 31.
Is snus the same as dip? Smokers' perceptions of new smokeless tobacco advertising.
Authors: Bahreinifar S, Sheon NM, Ling PM
Source: Tob Control, 2013 Mar;22(2), p. 84-90.
EPub date: 2011 Oct 4.
Electronic nicotine delivery systems in the hands of Hollywood.
Authors: Grana RA, Glantz SA, Ling PM
Source: Tob Control, 2011 Nov;20(6), p. 425-6.
EPub date: 2011 Jun 9.