|Grant Number:||5R01CA087477-10 Interpret this number|
|Primary Investigator:||Connolly, Gregory|
|Organization:||Harvard School Of Public Health|
|Project Title:||Design and Characterization of Cigarettes|
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The future of the tobacco industry depends on maintaining and expanding current tobacco product use, while recruiting new users to replace those who have quit or have died, particularly from tobacco related disease. Tobacco product design provides a major industry tool for innovations that undermine public health programs and support tobacco use and dependence. This project proposes to increase understanding of the design and function of tobacco products through systematic analyses of previously secret internal tobacco industry documents. The project will focus on product characteristics that encourage and enable product use and dependence among different populations of smokers. Internal documents provide a significant resource for evaluating industry knowledge of product design and effect. This research is critical to advancing scientific understanding of tobacco products and their population effects both in the short term and long term. The project is even more relevant with the Food and Drug Administration recently being given authority to regulate tobacco products in the U.S. The first aim of this project is to analyze how product design characteristics differ across major cigarette brands and categories and to evaluate the impact of these differences on consumer acceptance, appeal, use and dependence. The second aim is to study how different product characteristics are used to target and affect the perceptions of high risk groups, such as female, minority, young adult and youth, health concerned, and nonsmokers, and to evaluate responses to product differences among different populations. The final aim of this study is to examine how brand differences and product innovations affect patterns of use including increased trial and experimentation, maintenance of smoking and dependence. Our goal is to inform the scientific community and health regulators regarding the contribution of tobacco product design to patterns of use and dependence, and to help establish a science base for tobacco product regulation by the Food and Drug Administration. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: There is currently little knowledge outside of the tobacco industry on how the industry manipulates and controls product characteristics to facilitate nicotine dosing and increase appeal or on the impact of innovation of design characteristics on experimentation, dependence, and use within the targeted groups for which the innovations are intended. The goal of the proposal is to describe the primary systems of product design and the means by which these systems function, from product design, to population, to market outcome of increased use. Our project aims, taken together, will support a needed science base to inform the FDA on best practice strategies to substantially reduce tobacco product use and to protect the public's health.
Public attitudes regarding banning of cigarettes and regulation of nicotine.
Authors: Connolly GN, Behm I, Healton CG, Alpert HR
Source: Am J Public Health, 2012 Apr;102(4), p. e1-2.
EPub date: 2012 Feb 16.
Human electroencephalography and the tobacco industry: a review of internal documents.
Authors: Panzano VC, Wayne GF, Pickworth WB, Connolly GN
Source: Tob Control, 2010 Apr;19(2), p. 153-9.
Regulatory assessment of brand changes in the commercial tobacco product market.
Authors: Wayne GF, Connolly GN
Source: Tob Control, 2009 Aug;18(4), p. 302-9.
EPub date: 2009 Jun 14.
Tobacco industry manipulation of nicotine dosing.
Authors: Wayne GF, Carpenter CM
Source: Handb Exp Pharmacol, 2009;null(192), p. 457-85.
After the master settlement agreement: targeting and exposure of youth to magazine tobacco advertising.
Authors: Alpert HR, Koh HK, Connolly GN
Source: Health Aff (Millwood), 2008 Nov-Dec;27(6), p. w503-12.
EPub date: 2008 Sep 30.
Tobacco industry control of menthol in cigarettes and targeting of adolescents and young adults.
Authors: Kreslake JM, Wayne GF, Alpert HR, Koh HK, Connolly GN
Source: Am J Public Health, 2008 Sep;98(9), p. 1685-92.
EPub date: 2008 Jul 16.
The menthol smoker: tobacco industry research on consumer sensory perception of menthol cigarettes and its role in smoking behavior.
Authors: Kreslake JM, Wayne GF, Connolly GN
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2008 Apr;10(4), p. 705-15.
Tobacco industry research and efforts to manipulate smoke particle size: implications for product regulation.
Authors: Wayne GF, Connolly GN, Henningfield JE, Farone WA
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2008 Apr;10(4), p. 613-25.
Internal tobacco industry research on olfactory and trigeminal nerve response to nicotine and other smoke components.
Authors: Megerdichian CL, Rees VW, Wayne GF, Connolly GN
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2007 Nov;9(11), p. 1119-29.
Trends in nicotine yield in smoke and its relationship with design characteristics among popular US cigarette brands, 1997-2005.
Authors: Connolly GN, Alpert HR, Wayne GF, Koh H
Source: Tob Control, 2007 Oct;16(5), p. e5.
The role of sensory perception in the development and targeting of tobacco products.
Authors: Carpenter CM, Wayne GF, Connolly GN
Source: Addiction, 2007 Jan;102(1), p. 136-47.
Brand differences of free-base nicotine delivery in cigarette smoke: the view of the tobacco industry documents.
Authors: Ferris Wayne G, Connolly GN, Henningfield JE
Source: Tob Control, 2006 Jun;15(3), p. 189-98.
A guide to deciphering the internal codes used by the tobacco industry.
Authors: Cullen D, Wayne GF, Connolly G, Koh H
Source: Tob Control, 2005 Dec;14(6), p. 429.
New cigarette brands with flavors that appeal to youth: tobacco marketing strategies.
Authors: Carpenter CM, Wayne GF, Pauly JL, Koh HK, Connolly GN
Source: Health Aff (Millwood), 2005 Nov-Dec;24(6), p. 1601-10.
Industry research on the use and effects of levulinic acid: a case study in cigarette additives.
Authors: Keithly L, Ferris Wayne G, Cullen DM, Connolly GN
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2005 Oct;7(5), p. 761-71.
Characterization of measured menthol in 48 U.S. cigarette sub-brands.
Authors: Celebucki CC, Wayne GF, Connolly GN, Pankow JF, Chang EI
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2005 Aug;7(4), p. 523-31.
Designing cigarettes for women: new findings from the tobacco industry documents.
Authors: Carpenter CM, Wayne GF, Connolly GN
Source: Addiction, 2005 Jun;100(6), p. 837-51.
Assessing internal tobacco industry knowledge of the neurobiology of tobacco dependence.
Authors: Wayne GF, Connolly GN, Henningfield JE
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2004 Dec;6(6), p. 927-40.
Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products.
Authors: Hamilton WL, Norton Gd, Ouellette TK, Rhodes WM, Kling R, Connolly GN
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2004 Dec;6 Suppl 3, p. S353-62.
Application, function, and effects of menthol in cigarettes: a survey of tobacco industry documents.
Authors: Ferris Wayne G, Connolly GN
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2004 Feb;6 Suppl 1, p. S43-54.
One size does not fit all: how the tobacco industry has altered cigarette design to target consumer groups with specific psychological and psychosocial needs.
Authors: Cook BL, Wayne GF, Keithly L, Connolly G
Source: Addiction, 2003 Nov;98(11), p. 1547-61.
Percent free base nicotine in the tobacco smoke particulate matter of selected commercial and reference cigarettes.
Authors: Pankow JF, Tavakoli AD, Luo W, Isabelle LM
Source: Chem Res Toxicol, 2003 Aug;16(8), p. 1014-8.
Does menthol enhance the addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research.
Authors: Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Ahijevych K, Garrett BE, Connolly GN, Wayne GF
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2003 Feb;5(1), p. 9-11.
How cigarette design can affect youth initiation into smoking: Camel cigarettes 1983-93.
Authors: Wayne GF, Connolly GN
Source: Tob Control, 2002 Mar;11 Suppl 1, p. I32-9.