Skip Navigation
Grant Details

Grant Number: 5R01CA115618-05 Interpret this number
Primary Investigator: Loffredo, Christopher
Organization: Georgetown University
Project Title: Gender Differences in Bladder Cancer Risk Factors
Fiscal Year: 2010
Back to top


Abstract

Cancer of the urinary bladder affects 4 to 5 times more men than women worldwide. Cigarette smoking, occupational exposures and infection with Schistosoma haematobium are well-established risk factors for this malignancy. Furthermore, several genetic polymorphisms have been associated with increased bladder cancer risk. Important gaps in knowledge remain about synergistic effects between environmental factors, gene-environment interactions, and gender differences in bladder cancer risk factors. Egypt represents a unique setting for such research, as bladder cancer continues to be the most common malignancy in men in Egypt despite recent reductions in schistosomiasis, and the ratio of men to women remains consistently high; few women in Egypt smoke cigarettes (< 5%) compared to 50-70% of men; and in addition to the transitional cell type carcinoma that is predominantly observed world wide, squamous type carcinoma is very common in Egypt. We therefore propose to conduct a case-control study of bladder cancer in Egypt, with a sample size of 3,312 cases and 4 population-based controls per case. The Specific Aims of the study are as follows: 1) to evaluate environmental risk factors for bladder cancer, in men and women combined, including infections, and interactions among these factors; 2) to determine if associations between risk factors and bladder cancer are affected by gender; 3) to evaluate associations between bladder cancer risk (in men and women combined) and functional polymorphism in genes that mediate the oxidative stress response; 4) to evaluate interactions between environmental exposures and the candidate susceptibility genes, and to determine if gene-environment interactions exert differential effects on bladder cancer risk in men and women. Within these aims we will account for risk differences by histological type of bladder cancer (transitional vs. squamous). The results of this study will help establish the best preventive measures for bladder cancer in men and women, by appropriately directing the resources of the public health sector for effective cancer control.

Back to top


Publications

Pesticide, Gene Polymorphisms and Bladder Cancer among Egyptian Agricultural Workers.
Authors: Amr S, Dawson R, Saleh DA, Magder LS, George DM, El-Daly M, Squibb K, Mikhail NN, Abdel-Hamid M, Khaled H, Loffredo CA
Source: Arch Environ Occup Health, 2013 Nov 12;null, p. null.
EPub date: 2013 Nov 12.
PMID: 24219772
Related Citations

Back to top


Genetic polymorphisms in NQO1 and SOD2: interactions with smoking, schistosoma infection, and bladder cancer risk in Egypt.
Authors: Goerlitz D, Amr S, Dash C, Saleh DA, El Daly M, Abdel-Hamid M, El Kafrawy S, Hifnawy T, Ezzat S, Abdel-Aziz MA, Khaled H, Zheng YL, Mikhail N, Loffredo CA
Source: Urol Oncol, 2014 Jan;32(1), p. 47.e15-20.
EPub date: 2013 Sep 10.
PMID: 24035474
Related Citations

Back to top


Agricultural workers and urinary bladder cancer risk in Egypt.
Authors: Amr S, Dawson R, Saleh DA, Magder LS, Mikhail NN, St George DM, Squibb K, Khaled H, Loffredo CA
Source: Arch Environ Occup Health, 2014;69(1), p. 3-10.
PMID: 23930791
Related Citations

Back to top


Urinary bladder cancer risk factors in Egypt: a multicenter case-control study.
Authors: Zheng YL, Amr S, Saleh DA, Dash C, Ezzat S, Mikhail NN, Gouda I, Loay I, Hifnawy T, Abdel-Hamid M, Khaled H, Wolpert B, Abdel-Aziz MA, Loffredo CA
Source: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2012 Mar;21(3), p. 537-46.
EPub date: 2011 Dec 6.
PMID: 22147365
Related Citations

Back to top


GSTM1, GSTT1 null variants, and GPX1 single nucleotide polymorphism are not associated with bladder cancer risk in Egypt.
Authors: Goerlitz D, El Daly M, Abdel-Hamid M, Saleh DA, Goldman L, El Kafrawy S, Hifnawy T, Ezzat S, Abdel-Aziz MA, Zaghloul MS, Ali SR, Khaled H, Amr S, Zheng YL, Mikhail N, Loffredo C
Source: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2011 Jul;20(7), p. 1552-4.
EPub date: 2011 May 17.
PMID: 21586620
Related Citations

Back to top


Associations differ by sex for catechol-O-methyltransferase genotypes and bladder cancer risk in South Egypt.
Authors: Wolpert BJ, Amr S, Saleh DA, Ezzat S, Gouda I, Loay I, Hifnawy T, Abdel-Hamid M, Mikhail NN, Zhan M, Zheng YL, Squibb K, Abdel-Aziz MA, Zaghloul MS, Khaled H, Loffredo CA
Source: Urol Oncol, 2012 Nov-Dec;30(6), p. 841-7.
EPub date: 2011 Mar 11.
PMID: 21397529
Related Citations

Back to top


Estrogen exposure and bladder cancer risk in Egyptian women.
Authors: Wolpert BJ, Amr S, Ezzat S, Saleh D, Gouda I, Loay I, Hifnawy T, Mikhail NN, Abdel-Hamid M, Zhan M, Zheng YL, Squibb K, Abdel-Aziz MA, Zaghloul M, Khaled H, Loffredo CA
Source: Maturitas, 2010 Dec;67(4), p. 353-7.
EPub date: 2010 Sep 1.
PMID: 20813471
Related Citations

Back to top