|Grant Number:||5R01CA086273-04 Interpret this number|
|Primary Investigator:||Wakefield, Melanie|
|Organization:||University Of Illinois At Chicago|
|Project Title:||Youth Smoking and the Media|
DESCRIPTION: (Applicant's Description) While there is evidence that counteradvertising about tobacco can influence tobacco use, not all campaigns report these effects for youth. In addition, some studies suggest news coverage on tobacco can lead to reductions in consumption , but no studies have examined the effects of news coverage on youth smoking. This project aims to relate counteradvertising on television, and news coverage of tobacco issues, to measures of youth smoking across the United States. The project will build on the work of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-funded 'Bridging the Gap' project which links data from the Monitoring the Future surveys (MTFS) of 8 , 10 and 12 graders, to a project called 'ImpacTeen', which measures tobacco policy and environmental influences relevant to tobacco prevailing in each participating schools' community. The proposed project will use archival data from Nielsen Media Research to construct indices of exposure to counteradvertising (expenditure, gross rating points and teen-target rating points (TRPs) in each MTF community from 1994 through 2002, including the subset that comprise ImpacTeen sites from 1999 through 2002. Validation of the archival data set will be undertaken by reference to media purchase and placement records for the California Tobacco Control Program, and by reference to measures of recall of counteradvertising in the MTF surveys. Indices of 'effectiveness-adjusted' TRPs will be constructed, based upon focus group discussions with teenagers and input from an expert panel of people with experience in developing and assessing tobacco counteradvertising messages. In addition, measures of exposure to newspaper stories about tobacco issues for each MTFS site from 1999 through 2002 will be constructed using news clip data from Burrelle's Information Service and mapped to communities through information on newspaper circulation from the Audit Bureau of Circulation. For each community, indices of extent and tone of newspaper coverage on tobacco overall and for specific tobacco topics will be made using the metric of equivalent column inch advertising rate. Econometric techniques will be used to relate the extent of counteradvertising and extent of newspaper coverage to attitudes about smoking, and measures of youth smoking, including intention to smoke, smoking prevalence, consumption, and intention and attempts to quit. The analysis will also explore the relative impact of counteradvertising, newspaper coverage on tobacco, and other already collected measures of tobacco policy and environment (such as price, promotion and product placement in retail outlets, state and local laws relating to youth access, clean indoor air and tobacco advertising, price of cigarettes, school programs and more) on indices of youth smoking. This study, by assessing the value of counteradvertising and media coverage in reducing smoking among youth, will guide health policy and health funding decisions related to youth smoking prevention.
Effects of different types of antismoking ads on reducing disparities in smoking cessation among socioeconomic subgroups.
Authors: Durkin SJ, Biener L, Wakefield MA
Source: Am J Public Health, 2009 Dec;99(12), p. 2217-23.
EPub date: 2009 Oct 15.
Relation between newspaper coverage of tobacco issues and smoking attitudes and behaviour among American teens.
Authors: Smith KC, Wakefield MA, Terry-McElrath Y, Chaloupka FJ, Flay B, Johnston L, Saba A, Siebel C
Source: Tob Control, 2008 Feb;17(1), p. 17-24.
Working to make an image: an analysis of three Philip Morris corporate image media campaigns.
Authors: Szczypka G, Wakefield MA, Emery S, Terry-McElrath YM, Flay BR, Chaloupka FJ
Source: Tob Control, 2007 Oct;16(5), p. 344-50.
State anti-tobacco advertising and smoking outcomes by gender and race/ethnicity.
Authors: Terry-McElrath YM, Wakefield MA, Emery S, Saffer H, Szczypka G, O'Malley PM, Johnston LD, Chaloupka FJ, Flay BR
Source: Ethn Health, 2007 Sep;12(4), p. 339-62.
Effect of televised, tobacco company-funded smoking prevention advertising on youth smoking-related beliefs, intentions, and behavior.
Authors: Wakefield M, Terry-McElrath Y, Emery S, Saffer H, Chaloupka FJ, Szczypka G, Flay B, O'Malley PM, Johnston LD
Source: Am J Public Health, 2006 Dec;96(12), p. 2154-60.
EPub date: 2006 Oct 31.
The good news about smoking: how do U.S. newspapers cover tobacco issues?
Authors: Clegg Smith K, Wakefield M, Edsall E
Source: J Public Health Policy, 2006 Jul;27(2), p. 166-81.
Impact of smoking cessation aids and mass media among recent quitters.
Authors: Biener L, Reimer RL, Wakefield M, Szczypka G, Rigotti NA, Connolly G
Source: Am J Prev Med, 2006 Mar;30(3), p. 217-24.
Mixed messages on tobacco: comparative exposure to public health, tobacco company- and pharmaceutical company-sponsored tobacco-related television campaigns in the United States, 1999-2003.
Authors: Wakefield M, Szczypka G, Terry-McElrath Y, Emery S, Flay B, Chaloupka F, Saffer H
Source: Addiction, 2005 Dec;100(12), p. 1875-83.
Australian letters to the editor on tobacco: triggers, rhetoric, and claims of legitimate voice.
Authors: Smith KC, McLeod K, Wakefield M
Source: Qual Health Res, 2005 Nov;15(9), p. 1180-98.
Media advocacy and newspaper coverage of tobacco issues: a comparative analysis of 1 year's print news in the United States and Australia.
Authors: Smith KC, Terry-McElrath Y, Wakefield M, Durrant R
Source: Nicotine Tob Res, 2005 Apr;7(2), p. 289-99.
Televised state-sponsored antitobacco advertising and youth smoking beliefs and behavior in the United States, 1999-2000.
Authors: Emery S, Wakefield MA, Terry-McElrath Y, Saffer H, Szczypka G, O'Malley PM, Johnston LD, Chaloupka FJ, Flay B
Source: Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2005 Jul;159(7), p. 639-45.
The effect of antismoking advertisement executional characteristics on youth comprehension, appraisal, recall, and engagement.
Authors: Terry-McElrath Y, Wakefield M, Ruel E, Balch GI, Emery S, Szczypka G, Clegg-Smith K, Flay B
Source: J Health Commun, 2005 Mar;10(2), p. 127-43.
Trends in recall and appraisal of anti-smoking advertising among American youth: national survey results, 1997-2001.
Authors: Johnston LD, Terry-McEllrath YM, O'Malley PM, Wakefield M
Source: Prev Sci, 2005 Mar;6(1), p. 1-19.
Press coverage of public expenditure of Master Settlement Agreement funds: how are non-tobacco control related expenditures represented?
Authors: Clegg Smith KM, Wakefield MA, Nichter M
Source: Tob Control, 2003 Sep;12(3), p. 257-63.
Appraisal of anti-smoking advertising by youth at risk for regular smoking: a comparative study in the United States, Australia, and Britain.
Authors: Wakefield M, Durrant R, Terry-McElrath Y, Ruel E, Balch GI, Anderson S, Szczypka G, Emery S, Flay B
Source: Tob Control, 2003 Sep;12 Suppl 2, p. ii82-6.
Tobacco in the news: an analysis of newspaper coverage of tobacco issues in Australia, 2001.
Authors: Durrant R, Wakefield M, McLeod K, Clegg-Smith K, Chapman S
Source: Tob Control, 2003 Sep;12 Suppl 2, p. ii75-81.
Positive youth development requires comprehensive health promotion programs.
Authors: Flay BR
Source: Am J Health Behav, 2002 Nov-Dec;26(6), p. 407-24.